Home » Vocabulary


able (adj.)

Be able to (to have ability)

When will you be able to take me to get my car?

I am able to drive.


about (adv. & prep.)

used to express location in a particular place(adv.).

They ​heard someone ​moving about ​outside.

On the subject of; concerning (prep).

I was thinking about you.


 above (adv. & prep.)

In extended space over and not touching (Prep.)

There is a display of fireworks above the town.

at a higher level or layer(Adv.)

Place a quantity of mud in a jar with water above.


accident (n)

An unfortunate incident that happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, typically resulting in damage or injury.

He had an accident at the factory.



across (adv. & prep.)

From one side to the other of (a place, area, etc.) (Prep.)

I ran across the street .

expressing position or orientation(Adv.)

She ran across to say hello.

When I reached the river, I simply swam across.



activity (n)

The condition in which things are happening or being done.

There has been a sustained level of activity in the economy.


actor (n)

Person whose profession is acting on the stage, in films, or on television.

“Who is your favourite actor?”


 actually (adv.)

As the truth or facts of a situation.

We must pay attention to what young people are actually doing.



address (n)

The particulars of the place where someone lives or an organization is situated.

They exchanged addresses and agreed to keep in touch.


 adult (adj. & n)

A person who is fully grown or developed (n).

Children should be accompanied by an adult .

Fully grown or developed.(adj.)

She ​spent most of her adult ​life in ​prison.


 advanced (adj.)

Far on or ahead in development or progress

The negotiations are at an advanced stage.


adventure (n & v)

An unusual and exciting or daring experience (n).

She had some exciting adventures in Egypt.

Engage in daring or risky activity.(v)

They had adventured into the forest .


barbecue (n)

a meal or gathering at which meat, fish, or other food is cooked out of doors on a rack over an open fire or on a special appliance

Food was placed to sizzle on the barbecue


bear (n & v)

any one of a group of large and heavy animals that have thick hair and sharp claws and that can stand on two legs like a person (n)

I saw polar bear in zoo

(of a person) carry (v)

he was bearing a tray of brimming glasses


beautiful (adj)

pleasing the senses or mind aesthetically

She was ​wearing a beautiful ​dress


because (conj)

for the reason that; since

we did it because we felt it our duty


become (v)

begin to be

He has just become a ​father

It was becoming ​cold, so we ​lit the ​fire


begin (v)

perform or undergo the first part of (an action or activity)

What ​time does the ​concert begin?


beginner (n)

a person just starting to learn a skill or take part in an activity

This ​judo ​class is for beginners only


behind (adv & prep)

at or to the far side of (something), typically so as to be hidden by it.(prep)

the recording machinery was kept behind screens

at or to the far side of something.(adv)

Campbell grabbed him from behind


believe (v)

accept that (something) is true, especially without proof.

the superintendent believed Lancaster’s story


belong (v)

be the property of.

the vehicle did not belong to him


below (adv & prep)

at a lower level or layer than.(prep)

just below the pocket was a stain

at a lower level or layer.(adv)

he jumped from the window into the moat below


beside (prep)

at the side of; next to.

he sat beside me in the front seat


board (n)

a long, thin, flat piece of wood or other hard material, used for floors or other building purposes.

loose boards creaked as I walked on them



 boat (n)

a small vessel for travelling over water, propelled by oars, sails, or an engine.

We took ​turns to ​row the boat up the ​river.


boil (v)

(with reference to a liquid) reach or cause to reach the temperature at which it bubbles and turns to vapour.

we asked people to boil their drinking water


boot (n)

a sturdy item of footwear covering the foot and ankle, and sometimes also the lower leg.

He ​lent down and ​struck a ​match on the ​sole of his boot.


bored (adj)

feeling weary and impatient because one is unoccupied or lacks interest in one’s current activity.

she got bored with staring out of the window


born (v)

 to come out of a mother’s ​body, and ​start to ​exist

Diana was born into an ​aristocratic family.


borrow (v)

take and use (something belonging to someone else) with the intention of returning it.

he had borrowed a car from one of his colleagues


bother (v)

take the trouble to do something.

He hasn’t ​even bothered to write.


brave (adj)

ready to face and endure danger or pain; showing courage.

she was very brave about the whole thing


 bring (v) 

take or go with (someone or something) to a place.

she brought Luke home from hospital


broken (adj)

having been broken.

he had a broken arm


busy (adj)

having a great deal to do.

he had been too busy to enjoy himself


build (v) 

construct (something) by putting parts or material together.

the ironworks were built in 1736


buy (v)

obtain in exchange for payment.

they bought a new house

a large motor vehicle carrying passengers by road, typically one serving the public on a fixed route and for a fare.

Hurry, now, or you’ll ​miss the bus!


business (n)

a person’s regular occupation, profession, or trade.

she had to do a lot of smiling in her business



cabinet (n)

a cupboard with drawers or shelves for storing or displaying articles.

Valuable ​pieces of ​china were on ​display in a glass-fronted cabinet.

a ​small ​group of the most ​important ​people in ​government, who ​advise the President or Prime Minister and make ​important ​decisions

The Cabinet ​meet/​meets every ​Thursday


cafeteria (n)

a restaurant in which customers serve themselves from a counter and pay before eating.

This department store has a cafeteria.


calendar (n)

a ​printed ​table ​showing all the ​days, ​weeks, and ​months of the ​year

An ​old calendar for 2012 was still ​hanging on the ​wall of her ​office.


call (n & v)

give (a baby or animal) a specified name.(v)

they called their daughter Hannah.

a cry made as a summons or to attract someone’s attention.(n)

I heard calls of ‘Come on Steve’ from the auditorium


camp (v)

a place with temporary accommodation of huts, tents, or other structures, typically used by soldiers, refugees, or travelling people.

We set up the camp by the ​lakeside.


campsite (n)

a place used for camping, especially one equipped for holidaymakers.

The campsite is in a ​beautiful location next to the ​beach.


capital (n)

a ​city that is the ​centre of ​government of a ​country or ​smaller ​political ​area

Australia’s capital city is Canberra


career (n)

an occupation undertaken for a significant period of a person’s life and with opportunities for progress.

he seemed destined for a career as an engineer like his father


careful (adj)

making sure of avoiding potential danger, mishap, or harm; cautious.

I begged him to be more careful


carefully (adv)

with ​great ​attention

She carefully ​folded the ​letter and put it in her ​pocket.


carry (v)

to ​hold something or someone with ​your ​hands, ​arms, or on ​your back and ​transport it, him, or her from one ​place to another

Would you like me to carry your bag for you?


case (n)

an instance of a particular situation; an example of something occurring.

this moral panic is a classic case of overreaction


castle (n)

a large building, typically of the medieval period, fortified against attack with thick walls, battlements, towers, and often a moat.

The castle is set on a ​steep hill.


catch (v)

intercept and hold (something which has been thrown, propelled, or dropped).

she threw the bottle into the air and caught it again


cathedral (n)

the principal church of a diocese, with which the bishop is officially associated

I was ​woken up by the ​chimes of the cathedral ​bells.


cent (n)

a monetary unit in various countries, equal to one hundredth of a dollar, euro, or other decimal currency unit.

the pound is down two cents at one dollar forty



the point that is equally distant from every point on the circumference of a circle or sphere.

There was a ​large table in the centre of the ​room.


century (n)

a period of one hundred years.

a century ago most people walked to work.



cereal (n)

a grain used for food, for example wheat, maize, or rye.

I ​hate it when cereal goes all ​soggy, so I ​try to ​eat it up ​quickly.


certainly (adv)

used to emphasize the speaker’s belief that what is said is true.

the prestigious address certainly adds to the firm’s appeal


change (v & n)

to exchange one thing for another thing, ​especially of a ​similar ​type (v)

Let’s change the ​subject

the ​act of ​becoming different, or the ​result of something ​becoming different (n)

Let me ​know if there’s any change in the ​situation.


 channel (n)

a length of water wider than a strait, joining two larger areas of water, especially two seas.

She ​switched/​turned to another channel to ​watch football.


chatroom (n)

an area on the Internet or other computer network where users can communicate, typically one dedicated to a particular topic.

They’ve ​produced an ​information ​pack ​telling ​children how to use the internet ​safely and ​avoid ​chat ​room abusers.


cheap (adj)

low in price, especially in relation to similar items or services.

local buses were reliable and cheap


check (v)

examine (something) in order to determine its accuracy, quality, or condition, or to detect the presence of something.

customs officers have the right to check all luggage


chip (n pl)

a small piece of something removed in the course of chopping, cutting, or breaking a hard material such as wood or stone.


choose (v)

pick out (someone or something) as being the best or most appropriate of two or more alternatives

he chose a seat facing the door


circle (n)

a round plane figure whose boundary (the circumference) consists of points equidistant from a fixed point (the centre).

We ​sat in a circle.


classical (adj)

relating to ancient Greek or Latin literature, art, or culture.

Do you ​prefer classical ​music like Mozart and Mahler, or ​pop?


clean (adj & v)

free from dirt, marks, or stains.(adj)

the room was spotlessly clean

make clean; remove dirt, marks, or stains from.(v)

clean your teeth properly after meals


clear (adj)

easy to perceive, understand, or interpret.

the book gives clear instructions for carrying out various DIY tasks


click (n & v)

a short, sharp sound as of a switch being operated or of two hard objects coming smartly into contact.(n)

she heard the click of the door

make or cause to make a click(v)

the key clicked in the lock and the door opened


climb (v)

go or come up a (slope or staircase); ascend.

we began to climb the hill


close (adj & v)

only a short distance away or apart in space or time.(adj)

the hotel is close to the sea


cloud (n)

a visible mass of condensed watery vapour floating in the atmosphere, typically high above the general level of the ground.

the sun had disappeared behind a cloud


clown (n)

a comic entertainer, especially one in a circus, wearing a traditional costume and exaggerated make-up.


collect (v)

bring or gather together (a number of things)

he went round the office collecting old coffee cups


comfortable (adj)

(especially of clothes or furnishings) providing physical ease and relaxation.

They ​live in very comfortable ​surroundings.


competition (n)

the activity or condition of striving to gain or win something by defeating or establishing superiority over others.

there is fierce competition between banks


complete (v)

finish making or doing.

he completed his PhD in 1993


concert (n)

a musical performance given in public, typically by several performers or of several compositions.

The ​musicians are ​busy rehearsing for the concert.

contact (n & v)

the state of physical touching.(n)

equipment in contact with water can benefit from rubber lining

communicate with (someone), typically in order to give or receive information.(v)

anyone with any information should contact the police

conversation (n)

a talk, especially an informal one, between two or more people, in which news and ideas are exchanged.

she picked up the phone and held a conversation in French

cool (adj & exclam)

of or at a fairly low temperature.(adj)

it’ll be a cool afternoon

corner (n)

a place or angle where two sides or edges meet.

Jatin sat at one corner of the table

He lives at the corner of the street

correct (adj)

free from error; in accordance with fact or truth.

Make sure you have been given the correct information

cost (n & v)

(of an object or action) require the payment of (a specified sum of money) before it can be acquired or done.(v)

It costs a lot to ​buy a ​house in this ​part of Sydney.

an amount that has to be paid or spent to buy or obtain something.(n)

we are able to cover the cost of the event.

costume (n)

a set of clothes in a style typical of a particular country or historical period.

there’s a prize for the best costume

country (n)

a nation with its own government, occupying a particular territory.

he became the greatest ruler the country had known.

countryside (n)

the land and scenery of a rural area.

they explored the surrounding countryside.

course (n)

the route or direction followed by a ship, aircraft, road, or river.

the road adopts a tortuous course along the coast.

cover (v)

put something on top of or in front of (something) in order to protect or conceal it.

the table had been covered with a checked tablecloth


crazy (adj)

mad, especially as manifested in wild or aggressive behaviour.

Stella went crazy and assaulted a visitor

cream (adj & n)

the thick white or pale yellow fatty liquid which rises to the top when milk is left to stand and which can be eaten as an accompaniment to desserts or used as a cooking ingredient(n)

Do you like cream in ​your coffee?

cross (n & v)

a mark, object, or figure formed by two short intersecting lines or pieces (+ or ×).(n)

You can ​see the cross on the ​top of the ​church steeple from a ​long way away.

go or extend across or to the other side of (an area, stretch of water, etc.).(v)

she has crossed the Atlantic twice

crossing (n)

a place where roads or railway lines cross.

a stream of cars was waiting for the railway crossing barriers to be opened

crowd (n)

a large number of people gathered together in a disorganized or unruly way.

She goes around with a ​friendly crowd.

cry (v)

shed tears in distress, pain, or sorrow.

don’t cry—it’ll be all right

cup (n)

a small bowl-shaped container for drinking from, typically having a handle

My ​father always has a ​biscuit and a cup of ​tea at ​bedtime.

an ornamental trophy in the form of a cup, usually made of gold or silver and having a stem and two handles, awarded as a prize in a sports contest.

the winner was presented with a silver cup

curry (n)

a dish of meat, vegetables, etc., cooked in an Indian-style sauce of strong spices.

we went out for a curry

curtain (n)

a piece of material suspended at the top to form a screen, typically movable sideways along a rail and found as one of a pair at a window.

she drew the curtains and lit the fire

customer (n)

a person who buys goods or services from a shop or business.

businesses need to think up new ways of attracting customers

daily (adj & adv)

done, produced, or occurring every day or every weekday.(adj)

Exercise has ​become part of my daily ​routine.

every day.(adv)

the museum is open daily

danger (n)

the possibility of suffering harm or injury.

his life was in danger

dangerous (adj)

able or likely to cause harm or injury.

The men are ​armed and dangerous.

dead (adj)

no longer alive.

She’s been dead for 20 ​years now.

decide (v)

come or bring to a resolution in the mind as a result of consideration.

she decided that she liked him

deep (adj)

extending far down from the top or surface.

The ​hole is so deep you can’t ​see the ​bottom.


degree (n)

the amount, level, or extent to which something happens or is present.

This ​job demands a high degree of ​skill.


delay (n & v)

make (someone or something) late or slow.(v)

the train was delayed

a period of time by which something is late or postponed.(n)

This ​situation needs to be ​tackled without delay.


department (n)

a division of a large organization such as a government, university, or business, dealing with a specific area of activity.

The ​sales department is/are having a ​Christmas party this ​week.



describe (v)

give a detailed account in words of.

he described his experiences in a letter to his parents




dictionary (n)

a book or electronic resource that lists the words of a language (typically in alphabetical order) and gives their meaning, or gives the equivalent words in a different language, often also providing information about pronunciation, origin, and usage.

I’ll look up ‘love’ in the dictionary



difference (n)

a point or way in which people or things are dissimilar.

there is no difference between the two accounts


difficult (adj)

needing much effort or skill to accomplish, deal with, or understand.

she had a difficult decision to make


digital (adj)

(of signals or data) expressed as series of the digits 0 and 1, typically represented by values of a physical quantity such as voltage or magnetic polarization.

A ​green light appeared on the digital ​display and the ​door swungopen.


discount (n)

a deduction from the usual cost of something.

They usually give you a discount if you ​buy multiple copies.


discuss (v)

talk about (something) with a person or people.

I discussed the matter with my wife


double (n)

a meaning that can be interpreted in more than one way.

the title of the film has a double meaning


down (adv & prep)

towards or in a lower place or position, especially to or on the ground or another surface.(adv)

they went down in the lift

from a higher to a lower point of (something).(prep)

the lift plunged down the shaft


draw (v)

produce (a picture or diagram) by making lines and marks on paper with a pencil, pen, etc.

he drew a map


dream (n & v)

a series of thoughts, images, and sensations occurring in a person’s mind during sleep.(n)

I had a very ​strange dream about you last ​night.

Paul had a dream that he ​won the ​lottery.

to ​experience ​events and ​images in ​your ​mind while you are ​sleeping (v)

to ​imagine that you have ​heard, done, or ​seen something when you have not (v)

What did you dream about last ​night?

I often dream about/of ​flying.

dry (adj & v)

free from moisture or liquid; not wet or moist.(adj)

the jacket kept me warm and dry

become dry.(v)

The ​rain drummed ​loudly on the ​roof.

duck (n)

a waterbird with a broad blunt bill, short legs, webbed feet, and a waddling gait.

The ​cat sat in the ​tree ready to ​pounce on the ducks below.

during (prep)

throughout the course or duration of (a period of time).

the restaurant is open during the day


each (det & pron)

used to refer to every one of two or more people or things, regarded and identified separately.

there are five thousand books and each must be individually cleaned

early (adj & adv)

happening or done before the usual or expected time.(adj)

we ate an early lunch

before the usual or expected time.(adv)

I want to finish work early today

earn (v)

obtain (money) in return for labour or services.

he earns his living as a lorry driver


easily (adv)

without difficulty or effort.

he climbed the mountain easily

east (n, adj & adv)

the direction towards the point of the horizon where the sun rises at the equinoxes, on the right-hand side of a person facing north.(n)

a gale was blowing from the east

lying towards, near, or facing the east.(adj)

The east ​wall of the ​mosque is ​covered with a ​beautiful mosaic.

to or towards the east.(adv)

We’ll ​drive east for a few more ​miles, then ​turn south.

easy (adj)

achieved without great effort; presenting few difficulties.

Wilf’s task was very easy

electricity (n)

a form of energy resulting from the existence of charged particles (such as electrons or protons), either statically as an accumulation of charge or dynamically as a current.

The electricity has been ​turned off.

elevator (n)

North American term for lift (sense 1 of the noun).

in the elevator she pressed the button for the lobby

else (adv)

in addition; besides.

anything else you need to know?


email (n & v)

messages distributed by electronic means from one computer user to one or more recipients via a network.(n)

reading email has become the first task of the morning

send an email to (someone).(v)

you can email me at my normal address

empty (adj)

containing nothing; not filled or occupied.

she put down her empty cup


enough (adv, det & pron)

as much or as many as required.(det & pron)

have we enough food?

to the required degree or extent (used after an adjective, adverb, or verb).(adv)

Is the ​water hot enough ​yet?

enter (v)

come or go into (a place).

she entered the kitchen

entrance (n)

an opening, such as a door, passage, or gate, that allows access to a place.

They ​dropped me off at the ​main entrance.

envelope (n)

a flat paper container with a sealable flap, used to enclose a letter or document.

she tore open the envelope

eraser (n)

a piece of soft rubber or plastic used to rub out something written.

If you ​draw or write in ​pencil you can always ​rub out ​your​ mistakes with an eraser.

especially (adv)

used to single out one person or thing over all others.

he despised them all, especially Sylvester



exactly (adv)

used to emphasize the accuracy of a figure or description.

they met in 1989 and got married exactly two years later



excellent (adj)

extremely good; outstanding.

the lorry was in excellent condition


except (conj & prep)

not including; other than.(prep)

the shop is open every day except Monday

used before a statement that forms an exception to one just made.(conj)

I didn’t tell him anything, except that I needed the money



excuse (v)

seek to lessen the blame attaching to (a fault or offence); try to justify.

he did nothing to hide or excuse Jacob’s cruelty


exercise (n & v)

activity requiring physical effort, carried out to sustain or improve health and fitness.(n)

exercise improves your heart and lung power

use or apply (a faculty, right, or process).(v)

control is exercised by the Board


expensive (adj)

costing a lot of money.

I ​treated myself to a ​meal in an expensive ​restaurant.


explain (v)

to make something ​clear or ​easy to ​understand by ​describing or giving ​information about it.

The ​teacher explained the ​rules to the ​children.


explore (v)

travel through (an unfamiliar area) in order to learn about it.

he explored the Fontainebleau forest


extra (adj)

added to an existing or usual amount or number.

they offered him an extra thirty-five cents an hour



fact (n)

a thing that is known or proved to be true.

the most commonly known fact about hedgehogs is that they have fleas


fail (v)

be unsuccessful in achieving one’s goal.

he failed in his attempt to secure election


fall (n & v)

move from a higher to a lower level, typically rapidly and without control.(v)

bombs could be seen falling from the planes

an act of falling or collapsing.(n)

his mother had a fall as she alighted from a train


fantastic (adj)

imaginative or fanciful; remote from reality.

You ​look fantastic in that ​dress.


far (adv)

at, to, or by a great distance (used to indicate the extent to which one thing is distant from another).

the house was not too far away





feel (v)

be aware of (a person or object) through touching or being touched.

she felt someone touch her shoulder


field (n)

an area of open land, especially one planted with crops or pasture, typically bounded by hedges or fences.

The ​farmer put up the ​fence to ​stop people walking across his field.


file (n)

a folder or box for holding loose papers together and in order for easy reference.

he opened the file and began to read


fill (v)

cause (a space or container) to become full or almost full.

I filled up the bottle with water


find (v)

discover or perceive by chance or unexpectedly.

you’ll find that many lively towns are but a short drive away




foreign (adj)

of, from, in, or characteristic of a country or language other than one’s own.

Spain was the first foreign ​country she had ​visited.


forget (v)

fail to remember.

he had forgotten his lines


finish (v)

bring (a task or activity) to an end; complete. 

they were straining to finish the job


free (adj & adv) 

able to act or be done as one wishes; not under the control of another.(adj)

I have no ambitions other than to have a happy life and be free

without cost or payment.(adv)

fit (adj)

of a suitable quality, standard, or type to meet the required purpose.

the house was not fit for human habitation




flight (n)

the action or process of flying through the air.

the machine was modelled on the flight of a bird


fun (adj & n)

enjoyment, amusement, or light-hearted pleasure.(n)

the children were having fun in the play area

amusing, entertaining, or enjoyable.(adj)

it was a fun evening


fly (v) 

(of a bird, bat, or insect) move through the air using wings.

close the door or the moths will fly in


funny (adj)

causing laughter or amusement; humorous.

I’ve never ​found Charlie Chaplin very funny.


fog (n)

a thick cloud of tiny water droplets suspended in the atmosphere at or near the earth’s surface which obscures or restricts visibility (to a greater extent than mist; strictly, reducing visibility to below 1 km).

the collision occurred in thick fog


foggy (adj)

full of or characterized by fog.

the weather was wet and foggy


further (adj)

more distant in space than another item of the same kind.

two men were standing at the further end of the clearing


follow (v)

go or come after (a person or thing proceeding ahead); move or travel behind.

she went back into the house, and Ben followed her


future (n)

a period of time following the moment of speaking or writing; time regarded as still to come.

we plan on getting married in the near future


grade (n)

a particular level of rank, quality, proficiency, or value.

sea salt is usually available in coarse or fine grades


magnificent and imposing in appearance, size, or style.

He’s just ​reached the grand ​old age of 95.



game (n)

a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules.

he broke his leg two weeks before the big game


gas (n)

an air-like fluid substance which expands freely to fill any space available, irrespective of its quantity.

Carbon monoxide is a ​colourless, ​odourless, ​poisonous gas.

gate (n)

a hinged barrier used to close an opening in a wall, fence, or hedge.

she closed the front gate


get (v)

come to have (something); receive.

I got a letter from him the other day

get off (phr v)

escape a punishment; be acquitted.

you’ll get off with a caution



glad (adj)

feeling pleasure or happiness.

I’m really glad you’re coming with me



great (adj)

of an extent, amount, or intensity considerably above average.

the article was of great interest

grilled (adj)

(of ​food) ​cooked over ​fire or ​hot ​coals, usually on a ​metal ​frame

Do you ​want ​your ​fish ​pan-fried or grilled?


hall (n)

the room or space just inside the front entrance of a house or flat.

I ​left my ​bags in the hall.


hand (n)

the end part of a person’s arm beyond the wrist, including the palm, fingers, and thumb.

I ​delivered her ​invitation by hand 


happen (v)

take place; occur.

she could not explain how the accident happened


happy (adj)

feeling or showing pleasure or contentment.

Melissa came in looking happy and excited

hard (adj & adv)

solid, firm, and rigid; not easily broken, bent, or pierced.(adj)

the slate broke on the hard floor

with a great deal of effort.(adv)

they work hard at school



hate (v)

feel intense dislike for.

She hated the ​cold, ​dark days of ​winter.

help (v)

make it easier or possible for (someone) to do something by offering them one’s services or resources

they helped her with domestic chores




heating (n)

equipment or devices used to provide heat, especially to a building.

we had no heating in our bedrooms



heavy (adj)

of great weight; difficult to lift or move.

the pan was too heavy for me to carry


hill (n) 

a naturally raised area of land, not as high or craggy as a mountain.

he lived in a big house at the top of the hill


horrible (adj)

causing or likely to cause horror; shocking.

there was a horrible murder here earlier this year

history (n) 

the study of past events, particularly in human affairs.

this is a wonderful opportunity to use my interest in history

hit (v) 

bring one’s hand or a tool or weapon into contact with (someone or something) quickly and forcefully.

Marius hit him in the mouth



hobby (n)

an activity done regularly in one’s leisure time for pleasure.

her hobbies are reading and gardening


hour (n)

a period of time equal to a twenty-fourth part of a day and night and divided into 60 minutes.

The ​exam lasted an hour and a ​half.


hold (v)

grasp, carry, or support with one’s arms or hands.

she was holding a brown leather suitcase


holiday (n)

an extended period of leisure and recreation, especially one spent away from home or in travelling.

I spent my summer holidays on a farm

hurry (v)

move or act with great haste.

you’d better hurry or you’ll be late

hurt (v)

cause pain or injury to.

You’re hurting me!



hear (v)

perceive with the ear the sound made by (someone or something).

behind her she could hear men’s voices


interesting (adj)

arousing curiosity or interest; holding or catching the attention.

it is one of the most interesting novels of its time

include (v) 

comprise or contain as part of a whole.

the price includes dinner, bed, and breakfast

international (adj)

existing, occurring, or carried on between nations.

She was the ​boss of a ​large international ​company.

including (prep)

containing as part of the whole being considered.

He has ​admitted committing several crimes, including two ​murders.

indoor (adj) 

situated, conducted, or used within a building or under cover.

The indoor ​flower market is a ​big tourist attraction.

information (n) 

facts provided or learned about something or someone.

Do you have any information about/on ​train times?


invite (v)

make a polite, formal, or friendly request to (someone) to go somewhere or to do something.

we were invited to a dinner at the Embassy

identification (n)

the action or process of identifying someone or something or the fact of being identified

each child was tagged with a number for identification.


insect (n)

a small arthropod animal that has six legs and generally one or two pairs of wings.

I’ve got some ​sort of insect ​bite on my ​leg.

ill (adj) 

suffering from an illness or disease or feeling unwell.

he was taken ill with food poisoning

immediately (adv) 

at once; instantly.

I rang immediately for an ambulance

instructions (n pl)

a direction or order.

he issued instructions to the sheriff


improve (v)

make or become better.

He did a lot to improve ​conditions for ​factory workers.

interested (adj) 

showing curiosity or concern about something or someone; having a feeling of interest.

I had always been interested in history

job (n) 

a paid position of regular employment.

the scheme could create 200 jobs

join (v) 

link; connect.

the tap was joined to a pipe

journey (n)

an act of travelling from one place to another.

I ​love going on long journeys.

jump (v) 

push oneself off a surface and into the air by using the muscles in one’s legs and feet.

the cat jumped off his lap


keep (v) 

have or retain possession of.

my father would keep the best for himself

kick (n & v) 

strike or propel forcibly with the foot.(v)

police kicked down the door

a blow or forceful thrust with the foot.(n)

he gave the ball a kick

kit (n)

a set of articles or equipment needed for a specific purpose.

I ​bought a new ​cycle repair kit.

kite (n) 

a toy consisting of a light frame with thin material stretched over it, flown in the wind at the end of a long string.

The children were flying kites.

kind (adj & n) 

generous, ​helpful, and ​thinking about other people’s ​feelings(adj)

She’s a very kind and ​thoughtful ​person.

It’s very kind of you to ​help us.

a ​group with ​similar ​characteristics, or a ​particular ​type(n)

she brought all kinds of gifts

The ​cupboard ​contained all kinds of ​strange things.

know (v)

be aware of through observation, inquiry, or information.

most people know that CFCs can damage the ozone layer

language (n)

the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way.

She does ​research into how ​children acquire language.

large (adj)

of considerable or relatively great size, extent, or capacity.

We didn’t ​expect such a large ​number of ​people to ​attend the ​concert.

last (adj & det)

coming after all others in time or order; final.(adj)

they caught the last bus

late (adv & adj)

after the expected, proper, or usual time.(adv)

she arrived late

doing something or taking place after the expected, proper, or usual time.(adj)

the train was one and a half hours late

later (adv)

at a ​time in the ​future or after the ​time you have ​mentioned.

We could always go later in the ​season.

latest (adj)

He’s always ​crowing about his latest ​triumph.

the train was one and a half hours late

laugh (v)

make the spontaneous sounds and movements of the face and body that are the instinctive expressions of lively amusement and sometimes also of derision.

he rarely smiled or laughed

lazy (adj)

unwilling to work or use energy.

he was too lazy to cook

learn (v)

gain or acquire knowledge of or skill in (something) by study, experience, or being taught.

they’d started learning French

least (adv)

to the smallest extent or degree.

my best routine was the one I had practised the least

leave (v)

go away from.

she left London on June 6

left (adj, adv & n)

on, towards, or relating to the side of a human body or of a thing which is to the west when the person or thing is facing north.(adj)

His left ​eye was ​heavily bandaged.

on or to the left side.(adv)

turn left here

the left-hand part, side, or direction.(n)

It’s the ​street to the left of the ​hotel.


lend (v)

grant to (someone) the use of (something) on the understanding that it will be returned.

Stewart asked me to lend him my car

less (adj, det & pron)

a smaller amount of; not as much.(det & pron)

there was less noise now in the town

of lower rank or importance.(adj)

lesson (n)

a period of learning or teaching.

they should be industrious at their lessons

let (v)

not prevent or forbid; allow.

my boss let me leave early

level (n)

a horizontal plane or line with respect to the distance above or below a given point.

the front garden is on a level with this floor

licence (n)

a permit from an authority to own or use something, do a particular thing, or carry on a trade (especially in alcoholic drink).

I’ve always had a ​clean driving licence.

lie down (phr v)

to ​move into a ​position in which ​your ​body is ​flat, usually in ​order to ​sleep or ​rest

He ​lay down on the ​bed and ​tried to ​relax.

life (n)

the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity, and continual change preceding death.

only a mother can appreciate the joy of giving life to a child

lift (n)

a platform or compartment housed in a shaft for raising and lowering people or things to different levels.

Alice went up to the second floor in the lift

light (n & adj)

the natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things visible.(n)

don’t worry, we’ll be driving in the light and we won’t have to go fast

having a considerable or sufficient amount of natural light; not dark.(adj)

the bedrooms are light and airy

not ​weighing a lot(adj)

Here, take this ​bag – it’s ​quite light.

like (adv, prep & v)

used in speech as a meaningless filler or to signify the speaker’s uncertainty about an expression just used.(adv)

He’s, like, really ​friendly – someone you can ​talk to.

having the same characteristics or qualities as; similar to.(prep)

he used to have a car like mine

line (n)

a long, narrow mark or band.

a row of closely spaced dots will look like a continuous line

lion (n)

a large tawny-coloured cat that lives in prides, found in Africa and NW India. The male has a flowing shaggy mane and takes little part in hunting, which is done cooperatively by the females

a lion stands ready to attack

list (n)

a number of connected items or names written or printed consecutively, typically one below the other.

Is ​your name on the list?

listen (v)

give one’s attention to a sound.

evidently he was not listening

litre (n)

a metric unit of capacity, formerly defined as the volume of one kilogram of water under standard conditions, now equal to 1,000 cubic centimetres (about 1.75 pints).

The ​tax increase will ​add 4p to a litre of ​petrol.

little (adj)

small in size, amount, or degree (often used to convey an appealing diminutiveness or express an affectionate or condescending attitude).

the plants will grow into little bushes


live (v)

remain alive.

the doctors said she had only six months to live

living room (n)

a room in a house for general and informal everyday use.

the television was on in the living room

long (adj)

measuring a great distance from end to end.

I’ve been ​waiting a long ​time.

look (v)

direct one’s gaze in a specified direction.

people were looking at him

look after (phr v)

take care of.

I had to look after my brother after his accident

look at (phr v)

to ​think about a ​subject ​carefully so that you can make a ​decision about it

Management is ​looking at ​ways of ​cutting ​costs.

look for (phr v)

try to locate or discover, or try to establish the existence of

 be excited or anxious about

I am looking for Mr. Ravi Sharma. Do you know where he lives? I am looking for the address of Bill Wilson.


look out (phr v)

to ​try to ​notice someone or something

Look out for Anita while you’re there.

lorry (n)

a large, heavy motor vehicle for transporting goods or troops; a truck.

the lorry was rumbling over Tower Bridge

lose (v)

be deprived of or cease to have or retain (something).

I’ve lost my appetite

lost (adj)

unable to find one’s way; not knowing one’s whereabouts.

his spirit still walks among the hills, searching for lost travellers

loud (adj)

producing or capable of producing much noise.

they were kept awake by loud music

lovely (adj)

very beautiful or attractive.

She has lovely ​eyes.

low (adj)

of less than average height from top to bottom or to the top from the ground.

the school is a long, low building

luck (n)

success or failure apparently brought by chance rather than through one’s own actions.

it was just luck that the first kick went in

lucky (adj)

having, bringing, or resulting from good luck.

you had a very lucky escape

luggage (n)

suitcases or other bags in which to pack personal belongings for travelling.

upon landing, we waited and waited for our luggage

lunch (n)

a meal eaten in the middle of the day, typically one that is lighter or less formal than an evening meal.

Why don’t we have lunch together on ​Friday?


lunchtime (n)

the time in the middle of the day when lunch is eaten.

at lunchtime they pulled into a lay-by for a picnic



machine (n)

an apparatus using mechanical power and having several parts, each with a definite function and together performing a particular task.

The different ​sizes of ​eggs are ​sorted by a machine.

mad (adj)

mentally ill; insane

I ​think I must be going mad.

magazine (n)

a periodical publication containing articles and illustrations, often on a particular subject or aimed at a particular readership

She has written ​articles for several women’s magazines.

mail (n)

letters and parcels sent by post

I did not receive any mail

main course (n)

the most substantial course of a meal.

I had ​salmon for my ​main ​course.

 make (v)

to ​produce something, often using a ​particular ​substance or ​material

Do you ​want me to make some ​coffee?

He made a ​chocolate ​cake.

make-up (n)

cosmetics such as lipstick or powder applied to the face, used to enhance or alter the appearance

She ​wears a lot of make-up.

man (n)

an adult human male.

the man in the ​green ​jacket.

The man from the ​newspaper ​wrote some ​positive things about the ​movie.

manager (n)

a person responsible for controlling or administering an organization or group of staff.

I would like to ​speak to the manager.

mango (n)

a fleshy, oval, yellowish-red tropical fruit which is eaten ripe or used green for pickles or chutneys.

The fruit of the mango tree.


many (det & pron)

a large number of(det)

Many people agreed with her

map (n)

a diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities, roads, etc

I’m ​terrible at map ​reading

He ​bought a map ​showing the ​population ​distribution of ​Scotland.

mark (n)

a small area on a surface having a different colour from its surroundings, typically one caused by damage or dirt.

His ​fingers had ​left marks on the table’s ​polished ​surface.

market (n)

a regular gathering of people for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other commodities.

they wanted to browse around the street market

married (adj)

(of two people) united in marriage

We’ve been ​happily married for five ​years.

match (n)

a contest in which people or teams compete against each other in a particular sport.

Liverpool have a match with (= against) Blackburn next ​week.

matter (n & v)

physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spirit; (in physics) that which occupies space and possesses rest mass, especially as distinct from energy.(n)

The ​government decided to ​hold a ​public enquiry into the matter.

be important or significant.(v)

We were late but it didn’t ​seem to matter.

may (mv)

expressing possibility

I may ​see you ​tomorrow before I ​leave.

maybe (adv)

perhaps; possibly.

maybe I won’t go back

me (pron)

used by a speaker to refer to himself or herself as the object of a verb or preposition.

do you understand me?

meal (n)

any of the regular occasions in a day when a reasonably large amount of food is eaten.

I have my ​main meal at ​midday.

mean (v)

intend to convey or refer to (a particular thing); signify.

I don’t know what you mean

meat (n)

the flesh of an animal, typically a mammal or bird, as food (the flesh of domestic fowls is sometimes distinguished as poultry ).

The meat ​produced from a ​pig is called ​pork, ​bacon, or ​ham.

mechanic (n)

a skilled worker who repairs and maintains vehicle engines and other machinery.

At that ​time she was just a ​humble mechanic.

medicine (n)

the science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease (in technical use often taken to exclude surgery).

he made distinguished contributions to pathology and medicine

meet (v)

arrange or happen to come into the presence or company of (someone).

a week later I met him in the street

meeting (n)

an assembly of people for a particular purpose, especially for formal discussion.

we held an urgent meeting to discuss the response to the epidemic

melon (n)

the large round fruit of a plant of the gourd family, with sweet pulpy flesh and many seeds.

a ripe melon will smell sweet

member (n)

a person, country, or organization that has joined a group, society, or team.

she’s an active member of Greenpeace

memory (n)

the faculty by which the mind stores and remembers information.

I’ve a great memory for faces

menu (n)

a list of dishes available in a restaurant.

the waiter handed her a menu

message (n)

a verbal, written, or recorded communication sent to or left for a recipient who cannot be contacted directly.

if I’m not there leave a message on the answerphone

metre (n)

the fundamental unit of length in the metric system, equal to 100 centimetres or approximately 39.37 inches.

The ​room is six metres ​square.

midday (n)

the middle of the day; noon.

he awoke at midday

middle (n)

at an equal distance from the extremities of something; central

she stood alone in the middle of the street

midnight (n)

twelve o’clock at night.

I left at midnight


might (mv)

past of may1, used especially.

I ​brought him some ​sandwiches because I ​thought he might be ​hungry.

mile (n)

a unit of linear measure equal to 1,760 yards (approximately 1.609 kilometres).

The ​nearest town is ten miles away.

milk (n)

an opaque white fluid rich in fat and protein, secreted by female mammals for the nourishment of their young.

Do you take milk in ​your tea?

million (n)

the number equivalent to the product of a thousand and a thousand; 1,000,000 or 106.

The ​city has a ​population of ​almost a/one million.

mind (v)

be distressed, annoyed, or worried by.

Do you mind if I ​ask you a ​personal question?

mine (pron)

used to refer to a thing or things belonging to or associated with the speaker.

you go your way and I’ll go mine


mineral water (n)

water occurring in nature with some dissolved salts present, often bottled and sold as drinking water

Some ​producers of ​mineral water have made ​fat profits.

minus (prep)

with the subtraction of.

what’s ninety three minus seven?

minute (n)

a period of time equal to sixty seconds or a sixtieth of an hour.

we waited for twenty minutes


mirror (n)

a surface, typically of glass coated with a metal amalgam, which reflects a clear image.

he checked his appearance in the mirror

Miss (n & v)

fail to hit, reach, or come into contact with (something aimed at).(v)

a laser-guided bomb had missed its target

a failure to hit, catch, or reach something.(n)

the penalty miss cost us the game


missing (adj)

(of a thing) not able to be found because it is not in its expected place.

a quantity of cash has gone missing

mistake (n)

an act or judgement that is misguided or wrong.

I assumed it had been a mistake on the part of the overworked staff


mix (v)

combine or put together to form one substance or mass.

peppercorns are sometimes mixed with other spices

mobile (phone) (n)

a decorative structure that is suspended so as to turn freely in the air.

brightly coloured mobiles rotated from the ceiling

model (n)

a three-dimensional representation of a person or thing or of a proposed structure, typically on a smaller scale than the original.

The ​developer plans to ​build a model ​community on the ​site.

modern (adj)

relating to the present or recent times as opposed to the remote past.

We’re in the very modern-looking ​building opposite the ​station.


moment (n)

a very brief period of time.

she was silent for a moment before replying

money (n)

a current medium of exchange in the form of coins and banknotes; coins and banknotes collectively.

I counted the money before putting it in my wallet

monkey (n)

a small to medium-sized primate that typically has a long tail, most kinds of which live in trees in tropical countries.

What’s the ​difference between an ​ape and a monkey?

month (n)

each of the twelve named periods into which a year is divided.

February is the ​shortest month.

monthly (adj & adv)

done, produced, or occurring once a month.(adj)

the Council held monthly meetings

once a month; every month.(adv)

most of us get paid monthly

moon (n)

the natural satellite of the earth, visible (chiefly at night) by reflected light from the sun.

The moon ​cast a ​white light into the ​room.

more (adj, adv, det & pron)

a greater or additional amount or degree.(det & pron)

more water came pouring through the gap

forming the comparative of adjectives and adverbs, especially those of more than one syllable.(adv)

for them enthusiasm is more important than talent

morning (n)

the period of time between midnight and noon, especially from sunrise to noon.

I’ve got a meeting this morning

most (adj, adv, det & pron)

greatest in amount or degree.(det & pron)

she spends most of her time in London

forming the superlative of adjectives and adverbs, especially those of more than one syllable.(adv)

mother (n)

a woman in relation to a child or children to whom she has given birth.

he was visiting his mother

motorbike (n)

a motorcycle.

She ​jumped on her motorbike and ​raced off down the ​road.

motorway (n)

a dual-carriageway road designed for fast traffic, with relatively few places for joining or leaving.

There has been a ​collision on the ​southbound stretch of the motorway.

mountain (n)

a large natural elevation of the earth’s surface rising abruptly from the surrounding level; a large steep hill.

we set off down the mountain

mouse (n)

a small rodent that typically has a pointed snout, relatively large ears and eyes, and a long tail.

The mouse ​looked around the ​room inquisitively.

mouth (n)

the opening and cavity in the lower part of the human face, surrounded by the lips, through which food is taken in and vocal sounds are emitted.

Ben stood transfixed with disbelief, his mouth open

move (v)

go in a specified direction or manner; change position.

she stood up and moved to the door

movie (n)

a cinema film.

I don’t much like ​action movies.

movie theater (n)

a cinema.

The ​movie theater has ten ​screens.

movie star (n)

movie star (also known as a film star and cinema star) is a celebrity who is well-known, or famous, for his or her starring, or leading, roles in motion pictures.

Who’s ​your favourite movie star?

MP3 player (n)

a device for playing MP3s or other digital audio files.

it is without doubt the smallest, lightest, and most elegant MP3 player available

Mr (n)

a ​title used before the ​family ​name or ​full ​name of a man who has no other ​title, or when ​talking to man who ​holds a ​particular ​official ​position

We’re ​looking for a Mr (= a man called) Ravikant Sharma.

It’s an ​honour to have you here today, Mr President.

Mrs (n)

the title used before a surname or full name to address or refer to a married woman without a higher or honorific or professional title.

Hello, Mrs Grant, how are you today?

Ms (n)

a title used before the surname or full name of any woman regardless of her marital status (a neutral alternative to Mrs or Miss ).

What can I do for you, Ms Verma?

much (adj, adv, det & pron)

a large amount.(det & pron)

I didn’t get much sleep that night

to a great extent; a great deal.(adv)

did it hurt much?

mug (n)

a large cup, typically cylindrical with a handle and used without a saucer.

she picked up her coffee mug

mum (n)

a ​mother.

I’ll ​ask my mum if I can go.

museum (n)

a building in which objects of historical, scientific, artistic, or cultural interest are stored and exhibited.

The museum is ​full of ​rare and ​precious treasures.

mushroom (n)

a fungal growth that typically takes the form of a domed cap on a stalk, with gills on the underside of the cap.

she sautéd the mushrooms in butter

music (n)

vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion.

couples were dancing to the music

musical (adj)

relating to music.

they shared similar musical tastes

musician (n)

a person who plays a musical instrument, especially as a profession, or is musically talented.

The ​concert features dancers and musicians of all ​nationalities.

must (v)

be obliged to; should (expressing necessity).

you must show your ID card

my (det)

belonging to or associated with the speaker.

my name is John.

myself (pron)

used by a speaker to refer to himself or herself as the object of a verb or preposition when he or she is the subject of the clause.

I hurt myself by accident.


name (n)

a word or set of words by which a person or thing is known, addressed, or referred to.

my name is John Parsons

never (adv)

at no time in the past or future; not ever.

they had never been camping in their lives

no one (pron)

no person; not a single person.

there was no one about

national (adj) 

relating to or characteristic of a nation; common to a whole nation.

this policy may have been in the national interest

new (adj) 

produced, introduced, or discovered recently or now for the first time; not existing before.

Roger used new techniques of measuring and recording growth

normal (adj)

conforming to a standard; usual, typical, or expected.

it’s quite normal for puppies to bolt their food

nationality (n)

the status of belonging to a particular nation.

She has British nationality.

news (n)

newly received or noteworthy information, especially about recent events.

I’ve got some good news for you

north (n, adj & adv)

the direction in which a compass needle normally points, towards the horizon on the left-hand side of a person facing east, or the part of the horizon lying in this direction.(n)

The ​points of the ​compass are north, ​south, ​east, and ​west.

lying towards, near, or facing the north.(adj)

Our ​farm is a few ​miles north of the ​village.

to or towards the north.(adv)

The ​garden faces north and doesn’t get much ​sun in the ​winter.

nature (n)

the phenomena of the physical world collectively, including plants, animals, the landscape, and other features and products of the earth, as opposed to humans or human creations.

This new ​technique of ​artificially growing cells copies what ​actually happens in nature.

newspaper (n)

a printed publication (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, articles, advertisements, and correspondence

all the newspapers carried the story

nose (n)

the part projecting above the mouth on the face of a person or animal, containing the nostrils and used for breathing and smelling.

he slowly breathed out the air through his nose

near (adv & prep)

at or to a short distance away; nearby.(adv)

a bomb exploded somewhere near

at or to a short distance away from (a place).(prep)

The ​house was ​nowhere near the ​beach.

next (adj & adv) 

(of a time) coming immediately after the time of writing or speaking.(adj)

we’ll go to Corfu next year

on the first or soonest occasion after the present; immediately afterwards.(adv)

he wondered what would happen next.

not (adv)

used with an auxiliary verb or ‘be’ to form the negative.

Don’t you like her?

nearly (adv) 

very close to; almost.

David was nearly asleep

next to (prep) 

in or into a position immediately to one side of; beside.

we sat next to each other

note (n & v)

a brief record of points or ideas written down as an aid to memory.(n)

I’ll make a note in my diary

notice or pay particular attention to (something).(v)

he noted his mother’s unusual gaiety

neck (n) 

the part of a person’s or animal’s body connecting the head to the rest of the body.

she had a silver crucifix around her neck

nice (adj) 

giving pleasure or satisfaction; pleasant or attractive.

we had a very nice time

notebook (n)

a small book with blank or ruled pages for writing notes in.

he copied the number into his notebook

necklace (n) 

an ornamental chain or string of beads, jewels, or links worn round the neck.

Her ​diamond necklace ​glittered brilliantly under the ​spotlights.

night (n)

the period from sunset to sunrise in each twenty-four hours.

I ​slept really ​badly last night.

nothing (pron)

not anything; no single thing.

there’s nothing I can do about it

need (v) 

require (something) because it is essential or very important rather than just desirable.

the house still needs a lot of work

no (adv, det & pron) 

not at all; to no extent.(adv)

they were no more able to perform the task than I was

not any.(det)

there is no excuse

notice (n)

the fact of observing or paying attention to something.

their silence did not escape my notice

neighbour (n) 

a person living next door to or very near to the speaker or person referred to.

our garden was the envy of the neighbours

nobody (pron) 

no person; no one.

nobody was at home

now (adv)

at the present time or moment.

where are you living now?

noise (n) 

a sound, especially one that is loud or unpleasant or that causes disturbance.

The noise out in the ​street was ​deafening.

number (n)

an arithmetical value, expressed by a word, symbol, or figure, representing a particular quantity and used in counting and making calculations.

think of a number from one to ten and multiply it by three

noisy (adj) 

making or given to making a lot of noise.

Such a noisy ​environment was not ​conducive to a good night’s ​sleep.

nurse (n)

a person trained to care for the sick or infirm, especially in a hospital.

He ​worked as a nurse in a ​psychiatric hospital.

noon (n) 

twelve o’clock in the day; midday

the service starts at twelve noon




occupation (n)

a job or profession.

his father’s name and occupation are unknown

o’clock (adv)

used to specify the hour when telling the time.

the gates will open at eight o’clock

of (prep)

expressing the relationship between a part and a whole

of course (phrase of course)

used to introduce an idea or action as being obvious or to be expected.

the point is of course that the puzzle itself is misleading

off (adv)

away from the place in question; to or at a distance.

the youths scrambled out of the car and ran off

offer (n & v)

present or proffer (something) for (someone) to accept or reject as desired.(v)

may I offer you a drink?

an expression of readiness to do or give something if desired.(n)

We will ​send you written ​confirmation of ​our offer ​shortly.

office (n)

a room, set of rooms, or building used as a place of business for non-manual work.

it was only a few minutes’ walk to her office in Aldersgate Street

often (adv)

frequently; many times.

he often goes for long walks by himself

oh (exclam)

used to express a range of emotions including surprise, anger, disappointment, or joy, or when reacting to a remark.

Oh no,’ said Daisy, appalled

oil (n)

a viscous liquid derived from petroleum, especially for use as a fuel or lubricant.

make sure the car has enough oil


okay (exclam)

used to express agreement or acceptance.

OK, I’ll pass on your message

old (adj)

having lived for a long time; no longer young.

the old man lay propped up on cushions

omelette (n)

a dish of beaten eggs cooked in a frying pan and served plain or with a savoury or sweet topping or filling.

To make an omelette you must first ​beat the ​eggs.

on (prep & adv)

physically in contact with and supported by (a surface).(prep)

There was a water jug on the table.

physically in contact with and supported by a surface(adv)

make sure the lid is on

once (adv)

on one occasion or for one time only.

I saw him only once

one (number & pron)

the lowest cardinal number; half of two; 1.(number)

there’s only room for one person

referring to a person or thing previously mentioned or easily identified.(pron)

her mood changed from one of moroseness to one of joy

onion (n)

a swollen edible bulb used as a vegetable, having a pungent taste and smell and composed of several concentric layers.

I always ​cry when I’m ​chopping onions.

online (adj & adv)

controlled by or connected to a computer.(adj)

She ​works for an online ​magazine.

while connected to a computer or under computer control.(adv)

She does all her ​banking online.

only (adv & adj)

and no one or nothing more besides; solely.(adv)

there are only a limited number of tickets available

alone of its or their kind; single or solitary.(adj)

he is their only son

open (adj & v)

allowing access, passage, or a view through an empty space; not closed or blocked.(adj)

he climbed through the open window

move (a door or window) so as to leave a space allowing access and vision.(v)

she opened the door and went in.

opera (n)

a dramatic work in one or more acts, set to music for singers and instrumentalists.

it was the best performance of the opera he had ever heard

opposite (prep)

in a position on the other side of a specific area from; facing.

they sat opposite one another

or (conj)

used to link alternatives

Is it ​Tuesday or ​Wednesday today?

orange (adj & n)

a large round juicy citrus fruit with a tough bright reddish-yellow rind.(n)

reddish yellow.(adj)

order (n)

the arrangement or disposition of people or things in relation to each other according to a particular sequence, pattern, or method.

I filed the cards in alphabetical order


other (det)

as well as the thing or ​person already ​mentioned.

The ​product has many other time-saving ​features.

our (det)

belonging to or associated with the speaker and one or more other people previously mentioned or easily identified.

Jo and I had our hair cut

ours (pron)

used to refer to a thing or things belonging to or associated with the speaker and one or more other people previously mentioned or easily identified.

ours was the ugliest house on the block

ourselves (pron)

used as the object of a verb or preposition when this is the same as the subject of the clause and the subject is the speaker and one or more other people considered together.

since we’re here, we might as well enjoy ourselves

out (adv)

moving or appearing to move away from a particular place, especially one that is enclosed or hidden.

he walked out into the street

outdoors (adv)

in or into the open air; outside a building or shelter.

it was warm enough to eat outdoors

out of (phrase of out)

indicating the source or derivation of something; from.

She was ​lying on the ​sofa, ​totally out of it.

outside (prep & adv)

situated or moving beyond the confines or boundaries of.

there was a boy outside the door.

over (prep & adv)

extending directly upwards from.(prep)

I saw flames over Berlin

expressing passage or trajectory across an area.(adv)

he leant over and tapped me on the hand.

own (adj & pron)

used with a possessive to emphasize that someone or something belongs or relates to the person mentioned.

they can’t handle their own children



pack (v)

fill (a suitcase or bag) with clothes and other items needed for travel.

I packed a bag and left

page (n)

one or both sides of a sheet of paper in a book, magazine, newspaper, or other collection of bound sheets.

For ​details on how to ​enter the ​competition, ​see page 134.

pain (n)

highly unpleasant physical sensation caused by illness or injury.

she’s in great pain

paint (v & n)

a coloured substance which is spread over a surface and dries to leave a thin decorative or protective coating.(n)

This ​wall needs another ​coat of paint.

cover the surface of (something) with paint.(v)

I’ve been painting all ​morning.


painter (n)

an artist who paints pictures.

How do you make a ​living as a painter?

painting (n)

the action or skill of using paint, either in a picture or as decoration.

pastels require a different approach to painting

pale (adj)

light in colour or shade; containing little colour or pigment.

She has a ​naturally pale ​complexion and ​dark hair.

pair (n)

a set of two things used together or regarded as a unit.

I can’t ​find a ​matching pair of ​socks.

paper (n & adj)

material manufactured in thin sheets from the pulp of wood or other fibrous substances, used for writing, drawing, or printing on, or as wrapping material.(n)

Dictionaries are usually ​printed on ​thin paper.

pardon (exclam)

a request to a speaker to repeat something because one did not hear or understand it.

‘Pardon?’ I said, cupping a hand to my ear

parent (n)

a person’s father or mother.

her parents divorced when she was seven

park (n & v)

a large public garden or area of land used for recreation.(n)

Yvonne and her friends were playing in the park

bring (a vehicle that one is driving) to a halt and leave it temporarily, typically in a car park or by the side of the road.(v)

he parked his car outside her house

parking lot (n) 

a car park.

I ​left my ​car in the ​mall parking lot.

part (n)

an amount or section which, when combined with others, makes up the whole of something.

We ​learned about all the different parts of the ​digestive system.

partner (n)

a person who takes part in an undertaking with another or others, especially in a business or firm with shared risks and profits.

The two ​companies are partners in a ​contract to ​build the new ​factory.

party (n)

a social gathering of invited guests, typically involving eating, drinking, and entertainment.

150 people attended the party

pass (v)

move or cause to move in a specified direction.

he passed through towns and villages

passenger (n)

a traveller on a public or private conveyance other than the driver, pilot, or crew.

more than 50 passengers escaped injury when a train was derailed.

passport (n)

an official document issued by a government, certifying the holder’s identity and citizenship and entitling them to travel under its protection to and from foreign countries.

a British citizen with a valid passport does not need a visa to visit the US

past (prep)

to or on the further side of.

he rode on past the crossroads

pasta (n)

a dish originally from Italy consisting of dough made from durum wheat and water, extruded or stamped into various shapes and typically cooked in boiling water

Spaghetti, ​lasagne, ​ravioli, and ​cannelloni are all ​types of pasta.

path (n)

a way or track laid down for walking or made by continual treading.

the path continues alongside the river for half a mile

pay (v)

give (someone) money that is due for work done, goods received, or a debt incurred.

the traveller paid a guide to show him across

PC (personal computer) (n)

a personal computer.

pear (n)

a sweet yellowish- or brownish-green edible fruit which is narrow at the stalk and wider towards the base.

The pear  ​tree they ​planted has never ​borne fruit.

pen (n)

an instrument for writing or drawing with ink, typically consisting of a metal nib or ball, or a nylon tip, fitted into a metal or plastic holder.

My pen ​seems to be ​running out of ​ink – I need a ​refill.

penny (n)

a British bronze coin and monetary unit equal to one hundredth of a pound.

calls are charged at fifty pence a minute

pencil (n)

an instrument for writing or drawing, consisting of a thin stick of graphite or a similar substance enclosed in a long thin piece of wood or fixed in a cylindrical case.

He ​sat with his pencil ​poised, ​ready to take ​notes.

pencil case (n)

a small container for pencils, pens, and other writing equipment.

penfriend (n)

a person with whom one becomes friendly by exchanging letters, especially someone in a foreign country whom one has never met.

people (n pl)

human beings in general or considered collectively.

the earthquake killed 30,000 people

pepper (n)

a pungent hot-tasting powder prepared from dried and ground peppercorns, used as a spice or condiment to flavour food.

Shall I ​grind a little ​black pepper over ​your pizza?

per (prep)

for each (used with units to express a rate).

he charges £2 per square yard

perfect (adj)

having all the required or desirable elements, qualities, or characteristics; as good as it is possible to be.

she strove to be the perfect wife

perfume (n)

a fragrant liquid typically made from essential oils extracted from flowers and spices, used to give a pleasant smell to one’s body.

I caught a whiff of her fresh lemony perfume.

perhaps (adv)

used to express uncertainty or possibility.

perhaps I should have been frank with him.

person (n)

a human being regarded as an individual.

the porter was the last person to see her prior to her disappearance

pet (n)

a domestic or tamed animal or bird kept for companionship or pleasure.

the pony was a family pet

petrol (n)

a light fuel oil that is obtained by distilling petroleum and used in internal-combustion engines.

I had to use a ​bit of petrol to get the ​fire alight.

petrol station (n)

an establishment selling petrol and oil (and sometimes also other supplies and services) for motor vehicles.

pharmacy (n)

a shop or hospital dispensary where medicinal drugs are prepared or sold.

phone (v & n)

a telephone.(n)

she spent hours on the phone

contact someone by telephone.(v)

he phoned her at work

photo(graph) (n)

a photograph.

She took ​lots of photos of the ​kids.

photographer (n)

a person who takes photographs, especially as a job.

She’s a ​professional photographer.

photography (n)

the art or practice of taking and processing photographs.

She’s taking an ​evening class in photography.

physics (n)

the branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms.

piano (n)

a large keyboard musical instrument with a wooden case enclosing a soundboard and metal strings, which are struck by hammers when the keys are depressed.

She used to ​play piano in a ​jazz band.

pick up (phr v)

become better; improve.

the Japanese economy will soon pick up again

picnic (n)

an occasion when a packed meal is eaten outdoors, especially during an outing to the countryside.

we swam and went on picnics

picture (n)

a painting or drawing.

one of his pictures stood on an easel in the centre of the room.

piece (n)

a portion of an object or of material, produced by cutting, tearing, or breaking the whole.

He ​cut the ​cake into six pieces.

pillow (n)

a rectangular cloth bag stuffed with feathers or other soft materials, used to support the head when lying or sleeping.

his head rested on the pillow.

pilot (n)

a person who operates the flying controls of an aircraft.

The pilot had no ​recollection of the ​events leading up to the ​crash.

pink (adj)

of a colour intermediate between red and white, as of coral or salmon.

She was ​wearing a ​vivid pink ​shirt.

pity (n)

the feeling of sorrow and compassion caused by the sufferings and misfortunes of others.

her voice was full of pity

pizza (n)

a dish of Italian origin, consisting of a flat round base of dough baked with a topping of tomatoes and cheese, typically with added meat, fish, or vegetables.

I like ​lots of different pizza ​toppings.

place (n)

a particular position, point, or area in space; a location.

I can’t be in two places at once

plan (n & v)

a detailed proposal for doing or achieving something.(n)

he had a new plan for raising money

decide on and make arrangements for in advance.(v)

they were planning a trip to Egypt

plane (n)

a flat surface on which a straight line joining any two points on it would wholly lie.

He ​hates travelling by plane.

plant (n)

a living organism of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and mosses, typically growing in a permanent site, absorbing water and inorganic substances through its roots, and synthesizing nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using the green pigment chlorophyll.

This plant ​grows quickly and ​provides excellent ground cover.

plastic (n & adj)

a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc., that can be moulded into shape while soft, and then set into a rigid or slightly elastic form.(n)

mains pipes should be made of plastic or copper

made of plastic.(adj)

The ​wires were ​fastened together with a plastic ​clip.

plate (n)

a flat dish, typically circular and made of china, from which food is eaten or served.

he pushed his empty plate to one side and sipped his wine.

platform (n)

a raised level surface on which people or things can stand.

there are viewing platforms where visitors may gape at the chasm

play (v & n)

engage in activity for enjoyment and recreation rather than a serious or practical purpose.(v)

the children were playing by a pool

activity engaged in for enjoyment and recreation, especially by children.(n)

a child at play may use a stick as an aeroplane

player (n)

a person taking part in a sport or game.

a tournament enjoyed by both players and spectators

playground (n)

an outdoor area provided for children to play in, especially at a school or public park.

I was playing football in the playground.

pleasant (adj)

giving a sense of happy satisfaction or enjoyment.

It was pleasant to ​sit down after ​standing for ​hours.

please (v & exclam)

cause to feel happy and satisfied.(v)

he arranged a fishing trip to please his son

pleased (adj)

feeling or showing pleasure and satisfaction, especially at an event or a situation.

both girls were pleased with their new hairstyles

plus (prep)

with the addition of.

three plus three makes six

pocket (n)

a small bag sewn into or on clothing so as to form part of it, used for carrying small articles.

she fished for her door key in her coat pocket
point (v)

direct someone’s attention towards something by extending one’s finger or something held in one’s hand.

There was an ​arrow pointing to the ​door.

police (n)

the civil force of a state, responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the maintenance of public order.

local people have lost faith in the police

police car (n)

A police car (also called a police cruiser) is a ground vehicle used by police for transportation during patrols and to enable them to respond to incidents.

police officer (n)

a policeman or policewoman.

I was ​stopped by a ​police officer.


police station (n)

the office or headquarters of a local police force.

He was taken to the ​police station for ​questioning.

polite (adj)

having or showing behaviour that is respectful and considerate of other people.

they thought she was wrong but were too polite to say so

pool (n)

a small area of still water, typically one formed naturally.

She ​dipped her ​toe into the pool to ​see how ​cold it was.

poor (adj)

lacking sufficient money to live at a standard considered comfortable or normal in a society.

they were too poor to afford a telephone

pop (n)

a light explosive sound.

there were a few pops, perhaps from pistols

popular (adj)

liked or admired by many people or by a particular person or group.

she was one of the most popular girls in the school


possible (adj)

able to be done or achieved.

surely it’s not possible for a man to live so long?

possibly (adv)

perhaps (used to indicate doubt or hesitancy).

he found himself alone, possibly the only survivor

post (v & n)

a long, sturdy piece of timber or metal set upright in the ground and used as a support or marker.(n)

follow the blue posts until the track meets a road

display (a notice) in a public place.(v)

a curt notice had been posted on the door

postcard (n)

a card for sending a message by post without an envelope, typically having a photograph or other illustration on one side.

he promised to send me a picture postcard

poster (n)

a large printed picture used for decoration.

The ​children put up posters on the ​classroom walls.

post office (n)

the public department or corporation responsible for postal services and (in some countries) telecommunications.

I just have to ​nip to the ​post office.

potato (n)

a starchy plant tuber which is one of the most important food crops, cooked and eaten as a vegetable.

Chips are made of potato – ​surely you ​know that!

pound (£) (n)

a unit of weight equal to 16 oz. avoirdupois (0.4536 kg), or 12 oz. troy (0.3732 kg).

There are one hundred ​pence in a pound.

practice (n)

the actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it.

How do you ​intend to put these ​proposals into practice, Mohamed?

practise (v)

perform (an activity) or exercise (a skill) repeatedly or regularly in order to acquire, improve or maintain proficiency in it.

I need to practice my French

prefer (v)

like (one thing or person) better than another or others; tend to choose.

I prefer Venice to Rome


prepare (v)

make (something) ready for use or consideration.

I want you to prepare a plan of action for me

present (n)

the period of time now occurring.

they are happy and at peace, refusing to think beyond the present

pretty (adj)

(of a person, especially a woman or child) attractive in a delicate way without being truly beautiful.

That’s a pretty ​hat you’re ​wearing.

price (n) 

the amount of money expected, required, or given in payment for something.

land could be sold for a high price

project (n)

an individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim.

My next project is ​decorating the ​kitchen.

print (v) 

produce (books, newspapers, etc.), especially in large quantities, by a mechanical process involving the transfer of text or designs to paper.

four newspapers are printed in the town

printer (n) 

a person whose job or business is commercial printing.

pull (v)

exert force on (someone or something) so as to cause movement towards oneself.

he pulled her down on to the couch

prize (n)

a thing given as a reward to the winner of a competition or in recognition of an outstanding achievement.

her invention won first prize in a national contest

pupil (n)

a person who is taught by another, especially a schoolchild or student in relation to a teacher.

they are former pupils of the school

probably (adv)

almost certainly; as far as one knows or can tell.

she would probably never see him again


purple (adj)

Purple combines the calm stability of blue and the fierce energy of red. The color purple is often associated with royalty, nobility, luxury, power, and ambition

problem (n)

a matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome.

he’s been under increasing stress due to business and personal problems.

purse (n)

a small pouch of leather or plastic used for carrying money, typically by a woman.

she had enough in her purse for bus fare

program (n)

a ​series of ​instructions that can be put into a ​computer in ​order to make it ​perform an ​operation.

She’s written a program to ​find words that ​frequently occur together.

push (v)

exert force on (someone or something) in order to move them away from oneself.

she pushed her glass towards him

put (v)

move to or place in a particular position.

Harry put down his cup

programme (n) 

a planned series of future events or performances.

The ​school offers an ​exciting and ​varied programme of ​socialevents.

put on (phr v)

a deception; a hoax.

She’s not really ​angry – it’s just a put-on.

puzzle (n)

a game, toy, or problem designed to test ingenuity or knowledge.

those who solve this puzzle in the shortest time are eligible for awards




quarter (n)

each of four equal or corresponding parts into which something is or can be divided.

she cut each apple into quarters

queen (n)

the female ruler of an independent state, especially one who inherits the position by right of birth.

the Queen waved and smiled

question (n)

a sentence worded or expressed so as to elicit information.

 we hope this leaflet has been helpful in answering your questions

quick (adj)

moving fast or doing something in a short time.

in the qualifying session he was two seconds quicker than his teammate

quite (adv)

to the utmost or most absolute extent or degree; absolutely; completely.

it’s quite out of the question

quickly (adv) 

at a fast speed; rapidly.

Reg’s illness progressed frighteningly quickly

quiet (adj)

making little or no noise.

the car has a quiet, economical engine

quiz (n)

a test of knowledge, especially as a competition between individuals or teams as a form of entertainment.

the talk was followed by a gardening quiz




rabbit (n)

a gregarious burrowing plant-eating mammal, with long ears, long hind legs, and a short tail.

The rabbit ​hopped across the ​grass.

race (n & v)

a competition between runners, horses, vehicles, etc. to see which is the fastest in covering a set course.(n)

Hill started from pole position and won the race

compete with another or others to see who is fastest at covering a set course or achieving an objective.(v)

the vet took blood samples from the horses before they raced

racket (n)

a bat with a round or oval frame strung with catgut, nylon, etc., used especially in tennis, badminton, and squash.

He ​holds his ​tennis racket with a ​vice-like grip.


radio (n)

the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, especially those carrying sound messages.

cellular phones are linked by radio rather than wires

railway (n)

a track made of steel rails along which trains run.

We ​live close to the railway ​line.

rain (n & v)

the condensed moisture of the atmosphere falling visibly in separate drops.(n)

the rain had not stopped for days

rain falls.(v)

it was beginning to rain

raincoat (n)

a long coat, typically having a belt, made from waterproofed or water-resistant fabric.

rap (n)

a quick, sharp knock or blow.

there was a confident rap at the door

read (v)

look at and comprehend the meaning of (written or printed matter) by interpreting the characters or symbols of which it is composed.

it’s the best novel I’ve ever read

reading (n)

the action or skill of reading.

Reading and ​tennis are my ​favourite pastimes.

ready (adj)

in a suitable state for an action or situation; fully prepared.

Are you ready, Carol?

real (adj)

actually existing as a thing or occurring in fact; not imagined or supposed.

Julius Caesar was a real person

really (adv)

in actual fact, as opposed to what is said or imagined to be true or possible.

although he lived in a derelict house, he was really very wealthy

reason (n)

a cause, explanation, or justification for an action or event.

she asked him to return, but didn’t give a reason

receipt (n)

the action of receiving something or the fact of its being received.

I would be grateful if you would acknowledge receipt of this letter

receive (v)

be given, presented with, or paid (something).

the band will receive a £100,000 advance

receptionist (n)

a person who greets and deals with clients and visitors to a surgery, office, etc.

The office receptionist should be responsible person.

record (v)

set down in writing or some other permanent form for later reference.

they were asked to keep a diary and record everything they ate or drank.

red (adj)

of a colour at the end of the spectrum next to orange and opposite violet, as of blood, fire, or rubies.

refrigerator (n)

an appliance or compartment which is artificially kept cool and used to store food and drink

Store ​fruit juice in the refrigerator.

remember (v)

have in or be able to bring to one’s mind an awareness of (someone or something from the past).

I remember the screech of the horn as the car came towards me

rent (v)

pay someone for the use of (something, typically property, land, or a car).

they rented a house together in Sussex’

repair (v)

restore (something damaged, faulty, or worn) to a good condition.

faulty electrical appliances should be repaired by an electrician

repeat (v)

say again something one has already said.

Are you hurt?’ he repeated

rest (n & v)

cease work or movement in order to relax, sleep, or recover strength.(v)

he needed to rest after the feverish activity

an instance or period of resting.(n)

you look as though you need a rest

restaurant (n)

a place where people pay to sit and eat meals that are cooked and served on the premises.

Smoking is not ​allowed in this restaurant.

return (n & v)

come or go back to a place or person.(v)

he returned to America in the late autumn

an act of coming or going back to a place or activity.(n)

he celebrated his safe return from the war.

rice (n)

a swamp grass which is widely cultivated as a source of food, especially in Asia.

Do you ​prefer brown rice or ​white rice?

rich (adj)

having a great deal of money or assets; wealthy.

rich people pay higher rates of tax

ride (n & v)

sit on and control the movement of (an animal, typically a horse).(v)

Jane and Rory were riding their ponies

a journey made on a horse, bicycle, or motorcycle, or in a vehicle.(n)

I took them for a ride in the van

right (n, adj & adv)

that which is morally correct, just, or honourable.(n)

she doesn’t understand the difference between right and wrong

morally good, justified, or acceptable.(adj)

I hope we’re doing the right thing

to the furthest or most complete extent or degree (used for emphasis).(adv)

the car spun right off the track

right hand (adj)

on or towards the right side of a person or thing.

ring (n)

a small circular band, typically of precious metal and often set with one or more gemstones, worn on a finger as an ornament or a token of marriage, engagement, or authority.

she wasn’t wearing a ring

river (n)

a large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another river.

We ​sailed slowly down the river.

road (n)

a wide way leading from one place to another, especially one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles can use.

the roads were crowded with holiday traffic

roast (v & adj)

cook (food, especially meat) by prolonged exposure to heat in an oven or over a fire.(v)

she was going to roast a leg of mutton for Sunday dinner

(of food) having been roasted.(adj)

rock (n)

the solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth and other similar planets, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil.

the beds of rock are slightly tilted

roof (n)

the structure forming the upper covering of a building or vehicle.

the rain woke him, hammering on the roof

room (n)

space that can be occupied or where something can be done.

there’s only room for a single bed in there

round (adj)

shaped like a circle or cylinder.

she was seated at a small, round table

roundabout (n) 

a road junction at which traffic moves in one direction round a central island to reach one of the roads converging on it.

Take the first ​left at the roundabout.

run (v)

move at a speed faster than a walk, never having both or all the feet on the ground at the same time.

the dog ran across the road

rubber (n) 

a tough elastic polymeric substance made from the latex of a tropical plant or synthetically.

heat and sunlight may cause rubber to deteriorate

runner (n)

a person that runs, especially in a specified way.

Mary was a fast runner

rugby (n) 

a team game played with an oval ball that may be kicked, carried, and passed from hand to hand.

Tom ​plays rugby every ​Saturday.

running (n)

the action or movement of a runner.

ruler (n)

a person exercising government or dominion.

The ​country was without a ruler after the ​queen died.



sad (adj)

feeling or showing sorrow; unhappy.

I was sad and subdued

safe (adj)

protected from or not exposed to danger or risk; not likely to be harmed or lost.

the children are safe in bed

sail (v)

travel in a boat with sails, especially as a sport or recreation.

Ian took us out sailing on the lake

sailing (n)

the action of sailing in a ship or boat.

a voyage made by a ferry or cruise ship, especially according to a planned schedule.

the company operates five sailings a day from Ramsgate to Dunkirk

salad (n)

a cold dish of various mixtures of raw or cooked vegetables, usually seasoned with oil, vinegar, or other dressing and sometimes accompanied by meat, fish, or other ingredients.

Serve the ​risotto with a mixed/​green salad.

sale (n)

the exchange of a commodity for money; the action of selling something.

we withdrew it from sale

salt (n)

a white crystalline substance which gives seawater its characteristic taste and is used for seasoning or preserving food.

the temptation to add more salt to food should be resisted

same (adj & pron)

identical; not different.(adj)

she was saying the same thing over and over

the same thing as something previously mentioned.(pron)

I’ll resign and encourage everyone else to do the same

sandwich (n)

an item of food consisting of two pieces of bread with a filling between them, eaten as a light meal.

I just have a sandwich at ​midday.

sauce (n)

a liquid or semi-liquid substance served with food to add moistness and flavour.

Stir the sauce ​gently until it ​begins to ​boil.


sausage (n)

an item of food in the form of a cylindrical length of minced pork or other meat encased in a skin, typically sold raw to be grilled or fried before eating.

She ​sliced off a ​piece of sausage.

save (v)

keep safe or rescue (someone or something) from harm or danger.

they brought him in to help save the club from bankruptcy

say (v)

utter words so as to convey information, an opinion, a feeling or intention, or an instruction.

Thank you,’ he said.

scarf (n)

a length or square of fabric worn around the neck or head.

she tucked her woolly scarf around her neck

school (n)

an institution for educating children.

Ryder’s children did not go to school at all

schoolchild (n)

a child attending school.

We just ​sat there ​giggling like ​naughty schoolchildren.

science (n)

the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.

Space ​travel is one of the ​marvels/​wonders of ​modern science.

scissors (n pl)

an instrument used for cutting cloth, paper, and other material, consisting of two blades laid one on top of the other and fastened in the middle so as to allow them to be opened and closed by a thumb and finger inserted through rings on the end of their handles.

Could you ​pass me the/those scissors, ​please?

screen (n)

a fixed or movable upright partition used to divide a room, give shelter from draughts, heat, or light, or to provide concealment or privacy.

the Special Branch man remained hidden behind the screen for prosecution witnesses

sea (n)

the expanse of salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface and surrounds its land masses.

a ban on dumping radioactive wastes in the sea.


seat (n)

a thing made or used for sitting on, such as a chair or stool.

Chairs, ​sofas and ​benches are different ​types of seat.

second (number & verb)

constituting number two in a sequence; coming after the first in time or order; 2nd.(number)

he married for a second time

formally support or endorse (a nomination or resolution or its proposer) as a necessary preliminary to adoption or further discussion.(v)

Bridgeman seconded Maxwell’s motion calling for the reform

secretary (n)

a person employed by an individual or in an office to assist with correspondence, make appointments, and carry out administrative tasks.

she was secretary to David Wilby MP.

see (v)

perceive with the eyes; discern visually.

I can see the house

sell (v)

give or hand over (something) in exchange for money.

they had sold the car


send (v)

 cause to go or be taken to a particular destination; arrange for the delivery of, especially by post.

we sent a reminder letter but received no reply

sentence (n)

a set of words that is complete in itself, typically containing a subject and predicate, conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command, and consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses.

He’s very ​impatient and always ​interrupts me mid-sentence.

serve (v)

perform duties or services for (another person or an organization).

Malcolm has served the church very faithfully

set (v)

put, lay, or stand (something) in a specified place or position.

Beth set the two bags on the kitchen table

several (det & pron)

more than two but not many.

several people arrived early


shall (mv)

(in the first person) expressing the future tense.

this time next week I shall be in Scotland.

shame (n)

a painful feeling of humiliation or distress caused by the consciousness of wrong or foolish behaviour.

Lily walked in front of him, her face scarlet with shame

shampoo (n & v)

a liquid preparation for washing the hair.(n)

he smelt clean, of soap and shampoo.

wash or clean (something, especially the hair) with shampoo.(v)

Dolly was sitting in the bath shampooing her hair.

share (v)

have a portion of (something) with another or others.

he shared the pie with her.

she (pron)

used to refer to a woman, girl, or female animal previously mentioned or easily identified.

my sister told me that she was not happy.

sheep (n)

a domesticated ruminant mammal with a thick woolly coat and (typically only in the male) curving horns. It is kept in flocks for its wool or meat, and is proverbial for its tendency to follow others in the flock.

We ​heard sheep ​bleating/baaing in the ​field.

sheet (n)

a large rectangular piece of cotton or other fabric, used on a bed to cover the mattress and as a layer beneath blankets when these are used.

she changed the sheets and tidied the room.

shelf (n)

a flat length of wood or rigid material, attached to a wall or forming part of a piece of furniture, that provides a surface for the storage or display of objects.

she put Frank’s card on the shelf.

ship (n)

a large boat for transporting people or goods by sea.

the ship left England with a crew of 36.

shirt (n)

a garment for the upper body made of cotton or a similar fabric, with a collar and sleeves, and with buttons down the front.

tonight he’s smartly dressed in shirt and tie.

shoe (n)

a covering for the foot, typically made of leather, having a sturdy sole and not reaching above the ankle.

He put on/took off his new ​pair of shoes.

shop (n & v)

a building or part of a building where goods or services are sold.(n)

I need to go to the shops – I’ve got no ​food in the ​house.

visit one or more shops or websites to buy goods.(v)

she shopped for groceries twice a week.

shop assistant (n)

a person who serves customers in a shop.

The ​shop assistant was ​rude and ​unhelpful.

shopping (n)

the purchasing of goods from shops.

I’m going shopping this ​afternoon.

short (adj)

measuring a small distance from end to end.

Her ​hair is much shorter than it used to be.

should (mv)

used to indicate obligation, duty, or correctness, typically when criticizing someone’s actions.

he should have been careful.


shout (v)

(of a person) utter a loud cry, typically as an expression of a strong emotion.

she shouted for joy.

show (v & n)

be, allow, or cause to be visible.(v)

wrinkles were starting to show on her face.

a spectacle or display, typically an impressive one.(n)

shower (n)

a brief and usually light fall of rain, hail, sleet, or snow.

Snow showers are ​expected at the end of the ​week.

shut (v)

move (something) into position so as to block an opening; close.

please shut the door.

sick (adj)

affected by physical or mental illness.

half of children in the class are sick.

side (n)

a position to the left or right of an object, place, or central point.

The ​window on the ​right side of the ​house was ​open.

sightseeing (n)

the activity of visiting places of interest in a particular location.

We did some sightseeing in Paris.

sign (n)

an object, quality, or event whose presence or occurrence indicates the probable presence or occurrence of something else.

flowers are often given as a sign of affection.

silver (n & adj)

a precious shiny greyish-white metal, the chemical element of atomic number 47.(n)

We gave them a ​dish made of ​solid silver as a ​wedding present.

made of silver, or of the ​colour of silver. (adj)

My ​grandmother has silver ​hair.

simple (adj)

easily understood or done; presenting no difficulty.

it sounds difficult I know, but it’s really pretty simple.

since (prep)

in the intervening period between (the time mentioned) and the time under consideration, typically the present.

she has suffered from depression since she was sixteen.

sing (v)

make musical sounds with the voice, especially words with a set tune.

Mohan began to sing a traditional Himachali folk song.

singer (n)

a person who sings, especially professionally.

Are you a good singer?

single (adj)

only one; not one of several.

He ​knocked his ​opponent down with a single ​blow.

sink (v)

go down below the surface of something, especially of a liquid; become submerged.

he saw the coffin sink below the surface of the waves.

sister (n)

a woman or girl in relation to other daughters and sons of her parents.

I had nine brothers and sisters.

sit (v)

adopt or be in a position in which one’s weight is supported by one’s buttocks rather than one’s feet and one’s back is upright.

you’d better sit down.

sit down (phr v of sit)

encamp outside a city in order to besiege it.

with a large force he sat down before Ravenna.

site (n)

an area of ground on which a town, building, or monument is constructed.

We ​chose a ​large, ​level site for ​our tent.

sitting room (n)

a room in a house in which people can sit down and relax.

The ​sitting room had ​exposed wooden beams.

size (n)

the relative extent of something; a thing’s overall dimensions or magnitude; how big something is

the room was of medium size.

skate (v)

move on ice skates or roller skates in a gliding fashion.

My skates were a ​bit small.

skateboard (n)

a short narrow board with two small wheels fixed to the bottom of either end, on which a person can ride in a standing or crouching position, propelling themselves by occasionally pushing one foot against the ground.

skateboarding (n)

the ​activity or ​sport of ​riding a ​skateboard

skating (n)

the action or activity of skating on ice skates, roller skates, or a skateboard as a sport or pastime.

I ​enjoy winter sports like ​skiing and skating.

ski (v)

travel over snow on skis; take part in the sport or recreation of skiing.

He skied down the ​hill.

skiing (n)

the action of travelling over snow on skis, especially as a sport or recreation. Competitive skiing falls into two categories: Nordic (cross-country racing and jumping) and Alpine (downhill or straight racing, and slalom racing round a series of markers).

skirt (n)

a woman’s outer garment fastened around the waist and hanging down around the legs.

She was ​wearing a ​dreadful pink flouncy skirt.

sky (n)

the region of the atmosphere and outer space seen from the earth.

hundreds of stars were shining in the sky.

sleep (v)

be in a state of sleep.

I was on the verge of sleep.

slice (n)

a thin, broad piece of food, such as bread, meat, or cake, cut from a larger portion.

Would you like another slice of ​ham/​beef?

slim (adj)

(of a person or their build) gracefully thin; slender.

she was tall and slim with long blonde hair.

slow (adj)

moving or operating, or designed to do so, only at a low speed; not quick or fast.

We’re making slow but ​steady progress with the ​painting.

slowly (adv)

at a slow speed; not quickly.

they moved forward slowly.

small (adj)

of a size that is less than normal or usual.

the room was small and quiet.

smoke (n)

the ​grey, ​black, or ​white ​mixture of ​gas and very ​small ​pieces of ​carbon that is ​produced when something ​burns

Plumes of smoke ​billowed from the ​chimney.

smoking (v)

to ​breathe smoke into the ​mouth and usually ​lungs from a ​cigarette, ​pipe, etc

to ​produce smoke as a ​result of ​industrial ​activity or of something such as an ​electrical ​fault

Smoking is not ​permitted anywhere in this ​theatre.

The ​skyline is ​dominated by smoking ​factory ​chimneys.

Suddenly the TV went ​blank and ​started smoking.


snack (n)

a small amount of food eaten between meals.

I had a ​huge lunch, so I’ll only need a snack for ​dinner.

snow (n & v)

atmospheric water vapour frozen into ice crystals and falling in light white flakes or lying on the ground as a white layer.(n)

we were trudging through deep snow

snow falls.(v)

it’s not snowing so heavily now.


snowboard (n) 

a board resembling a short, broad ski, used for sliding downhill on snow.

Snowboard ​parks (= where you can snowboard) are ​becoming more ​popular.

sport (n) 

an activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment.

he takes part in a variety of sports.

study (v)

devote time and attention to gaining knowledge of (an academic subject), especially by means of books.

Next ​term we will study ​plants and how they ​grow.


subject (n)

a person or thing that is being discussed, described, or dealt with.

I’ve said all there is to be said on the subject.

so (conj & adv) 

and for this reason; therefore.(conj)

it was still painful so I went to see a specialist

to such a great extent.(adv)

the words tumbled out so fast that I could barely hear them.

spring (n) 

the season after winter and before summer, in which vegetation begins to appear, in the northern hemisphere from March to May and in the southern hemisphere from September to November.

in spring the garden is a feast of blossom.

square (n & adj) 

a plane figure with four equal straight sides and four right angles.(n)

Cut the ​pastry into a square and ​turn in the ​corners.

having the shape or approximate shape of a square.(adj)

The ​recipe recommends that you use a square ​cake tin.

stadium (n)

an athletic or sports ground with tiers of seats for spectators.

Thousands of ​fans packed into the stadium to ​watch the ​match.

such (det)

of the type previously mentioned.

I have been involved in many such courses

staff (n) 

all the people employed by a particular organization.

there is a reluctance to take on new staff.

suddenly (adv)

quickly and unexpectedly.

George II died suddenly.

stage (n) 

a point, period, or step in a process or development.

there is no need at this stage to give explicit details.

sugar (n)

a sweet crystalline substance obtained from various plants, especially sugar cane and sugar beet, consisting essentially of sucrose, and used as a sweetener in food and drink.

I don’t take sugar in my ​coffee, ​thanks.

soap (n) 

a substance used with water for washing and cleaning, made of a compound of natural oils or fats with sodium hydroxide or another strong alkali, and typically having perfume and colouring added.

She ​bought me a ​box of nice-smelling soaps.

stairs (n pl)

a set of steps leading from one floor of a building to another, typically inside the building.

he came up the stairs.


suit (n)

a set of outer clothes made of the same fabric and designed to be worn together, typically consisting of a jacket and trousers or a jacket and skirt.

She ​wore a ​dark blue suit.

soccer (n) 

a form of football played by two teams of eleven players with a round ball which may not be handled during play except by the goalkeepers.

The soccer ​fans indulged their patriotism, ​waving flags and ​singing​ songs.

stamp (n) 

an instrument for stamping a pattern or mark, in particular an engraved or inked block or die.

I ​stuck a 50p stamp on the ​envelope.

sock (n) 

a garment for the foot and lower part of the leg, typically knitted from wool, cotton, or nylon.

The little ​boy was ​wearing odd socks.

suitcase (n)

a case with a handle and a hinged lid, used for carrying clothes and other personal possessions.

he carried a small battered suitcase.


sofa (n) 

a long upholstered seat with a back and arms, for two or more people.

They ​settled down on the sofa to ​watch the ​film.

stand (v) 

have or maintain an upright position, supported by one’s feet.

Lionel stood in the doorway.

summer (n)

the warmest season of the year, in the northern hemisphere from June to August and in the southern hemisphere from December to February.

We have ​breakfast on the ​balcony in (the) summer.

soft (adj) 

easy to mould, cut, compress, or fold; not hard or firm to the touch.

I like ​chocolates with soft ​centres.

sun (n)

the star round which the earth orbits.

the sun shone from a cloudless sky.

software (n) 

the programs and other operating information used by a computer.

He’s written a ​piece of software that does ​your taxes for you.


sunglasses (n pl)

glasses tinted to protect the eyes from sunlight or glare.

some (det & pron) 

an unspecified amount or number of.(det)

I made some money running errands

an unspecified number or amount of people or things.(pron)

If you need more ​paper then just take some.

star (n & v) 

a fixed luminous point in the night sky which is a large, remote incandescent body like the sun.(n)

the sky was full of stars

(of a film, play, or other show) have (someone) as a principal performer.(v)

Sonam Kapoor starred in the ​movie “Neerja”.

sunny (adj)

bright with sunlight.

We’re having the ​party in the ​garden, so I’m ​praying it’ll be sunny.

somebody (pron)

some person; someone. 

Somebody ​rang while you were at Polly’s ​house.


start (v) 

begin or be reckoned from a particular point in time or space; come into being.

the meeting starts at 7.45.

supermarket (n)

a large self-service shop selling foods and household goods.

She ​works on the ​checkout at the ​local supermarket.

someone (pron)

an unknown or unspecified person; some person.

there’s someone at the door.

station (n) 

a place where passenger trains stop on a railway line, typically with platforms and buildings.

Our ​office is near the station.

supper (n)

an evening meal, typically a light or informal one.

we had a delicious cold supper.

something (pron)

a thing that is unspecified or unknown.

we stopped for something to eat.

stay (v) 

remain in the same place.

you stay here and I’ll be back soon.

suppose (v)

think or assume that something is true or probable but lack proof or certain knowledge.

I suppose I got there about noon.

sometimes (adv) 

occasionally, rather than all of the time.

sometimes I want to do things on my own.

steak (n) 

high-quality beef taken from the hindquarters of the animal, typically cut into thick slices that are cooked by grilling or frying.

he liked his steak rare.

somewhere (adv) 

in or to some place.

I’ve seen you somewhere before.

steal (v) 

take (another person’s property) without permission or legal right and without intending to return it.

thieves stole her bicycle.

son (n) 

a boy or man in relation to either or both of his parents.

This is ​our son Raja.

sure (adj)

completely confident that one is right.

I’m sure I’ve seen that dress before.

song (n)

a usually ​short ​piece of ​music with words that are ​sung.

She was ​singing a little song to herself.

still (adv) 

up to and including the present or the time mentioned; even now (or then) as formerly.

he still lives with his mother.

soon (adv)

in or after a short time. 

everyone will soon know the truth.

stomach (n) 

the internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the oesophagus to the small intestine.

she had pains in her stomach.

surf (v)

stand or lie on a surfboard and ride on a wave towards the shore.

he’s learning to surf.

sorry (adj)

feeling sad or distressed through sympathy with someone else’s misfortune. 

I was sorry to hear about what happened to your family.

stomach ache (n)

a pain in a person’s stomach or belly.

she had a stomach ache.

surfboard (n)

a long, narrow shaped board used in surfing.

after a day of surfboarding, he suffered severe low back pain

stop (n & v) 

(of an event, action, or process) come to an end; cease to happen.(v)

his laughter stopped as quickly as it had begun.

a cessation of movement or operation.(n)

all business came to a stop.

surfing (n)

the sport or pastime of riding a wave towards the shore while standing or lying on a surfboard.

They go surfing every ​weekend.

store (n)

a quantity or supply of something kept for use as needed. 

the squirrel has a store of food.

surname (n)

a hereditary name common to all members of a family, as distinct from a forename or given name.

he changed his surname from Sharma to Verma.

sort (n)

a category of things or people with a common feature; a type.

what sort of book do you like reading?

storm (n)

a violent disturbance of the atmosphere with strong winds and usually rain, thunder, lightning, or snow. 

the severe storms that battered Orkney earlier this year.

surprise (n)

an unexpected or astonishing event, fact, etc.

the announcement came as a complete surprise.


sound (v) 

emit or cause to emit sound.

They could ​hear the sound of a ​bell tolling in the ​distance.

story (n)

an account of imaginary or real people and events told for entertainment.

Martha ​chose her ​favourite book of ​bedtime stories.

surprised (adj)

feeling or showing surprise.

there was a surprised silence.

straight (adj & adv) 

extending or moving uniformly in one direction only; without a curve or bend.(adj)

the aircraft continued on a straight course.

in a straight line; directly.(adv)

he was gazing straight at her.

sweater (n)

a knitted garment worn on the upper body, typically with long sleeves, put on over the head.

He was ​wearing a ​chunky navy sweater.

soup (n)

a liquid dish, typically savoury and made by boiling meat, fish, or vegetables etc. in stock or water.

Would you like a ​bowl of soup?

sweet (n & adj)

having the pleasant taste characteristic of sugar or honey; not salt, sour, or bitter.(adj)

The ​pineapple was sweet and ​juicy.

a small shaped piece of confectionery made with sugar.(n)

She ​bought a ​packet of sweets to ​suck on the way.

south (n, adj & adv) 

the direction towards the point of the horizon 90° clockwise from east.(n)

the breeze came from the south.

lying towards, near, or facing the south.(adj)

These ​plants grow well on a south-​facing wall.

to or towards the south.(adv)

They ​drove south towards the ​coast.

swim (v)

propel the body through water by using the limbs, or (in the case of a fish or other aquatic animal) by using fins, tail, or other bodily movement.

when it rained they played squash or swam in the indoor pool.

space (n)

a continuous area or expanse which is free, available, or unoccupied.

there was not enough space for them all.

strange (adj)

unusual or surprising; difficult to understand or explain.

children have some strange ideas.

swimming (n)

the sport or activity of propelling oneself through water using the limbs.

Rachel had always loved swimming.

spare (adj) 

additional to what is required for ordinary use

few people had spare cash for inessentials.

swimming costume (n)

a garment worn for swimming, especially a woman’s one-piece swimsuit.

speak (v) 

say something in order to convey information or to express a feeling.

in his agitation he was unable to speak.

street (n) 

a public road in a city, town, or village, typically with houses and buildings on one or both sides.

The streets were ​strewn with ​rubbish after the ​parade.

speaker (n)

a person who speaks.

language communication involves the interrelation between speaker and hearer.

strong (adj) 

having the power to move heavy weights or perform other physically demanding tasks.

she cut through the water with her strong arms.

swimming pool (n)

an artificial pool for swimming in.

The ​hotel has ​its own ​swimming pool.

special (adj) 

better, greater, or otherwise different from what is usual.

they always made a special effort at Christmas.

student (n)

a person who is studying at a university or other place of higher education.

We ​try to ​treat our students as ​individuals.

spell (v) 

to ​form a word or words with the ​letters in the ​correct ​order.
How do you spell ​receive?

studies (n pl)

the devotion of time and attention to gaining knowledge of an academic subject, especially by means of books.

If we ​clear out the ​spare room, you can use it as a study.

spelling (n)

Spelling is defined as the proper way to write a word, using the correct order of letters. 

My ​computer has a ​program which ​corrects my spelling. 

spend (v) 

give (money) to pay for goods, services, or so as to benefit someone or something. 

the firm has spent £100,000 on hardware.

spoon (n) 

an implement consisting of a small, shallow oval or round bowl on a long handle, used for eating, stirring, and serving food. 

 Stir the ​mixture with a ​wooden spoon.


table (n)

a piece of furniture with a flat top and one or more legs, providing a level surface for eating, writing, or working at.

she put the plate on the table.

table tennis (n)

an indoor game based on tennis, played with small bats and a ball bounced on a table divided by a net.

take (v)

lay hold of (something) with one’s hands; reach for and hold.

he leaned forward to take her hand.

take off (phr v of take)

(of an aircraft or bird) become airborne.

the plane took off.

talk (n & v)

speak in order to give information or express ideas or feelings; converse or communicate by spoken words.(v)

I was talking to a friend who lives in the next town.

communication by spoken words; conversation or discussion.(n)

he was bored with all this talk.

tall (adj)

of great or more than average height, especially (with reference to an object) relative to width.

She’s ​nearly as tall as her ​father now.

He’s six ​feet tall.

taxi (n)

a motor vehicle licensed to transport passengers in return for payment of a fare and typically fitted with a taximeter.

I’ll take a taxi from the air terminal.

tea (n)

a hot drink made by infusing the dried crushed leaves of the tea plant in boiling water.

Kareena sipped her tea.


teach (v)

impart knowledge to or instruct (someone) as to how to do something.

she taught him to read.


teacher (n)

a person who teaches, especially in a school.

The teacher ​drew a ​diagram showing how the ​blood flows through the ​heart.

team (n)

a group of players forming one side in a competitive game or sport.

Our team came third in the ​competition.

teenager (n)

a person aged between 13 and 19 years.

The ​magazine is ​aimed at teenagers and ​young adults.

telephone (n & v)

a system for transmitting voices over a distance using wire or radio, by converting acoustic vibrations to electrical signals.(n)

She ​hurried to ​answer the telephone.

contact (someone) using the telephone.(v)

I ​decided to telephone the ​doctor.

television (TV) (n)

a system for converting visual images (with sound) into electrical signals, transmitting them by radio or other means, and displaying them electronically on a screen.

Could you ​turn the television down?

tell (v)

communicate information to someone in spoken or written words.

I told her you were coming.

temperature (n)

the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or perceived by touch.

The temperature today ​reached 25°C.

tennis (n)

a game in which two or four players strike a ball with rackets over a net stretched across a court. The usual form (originally called lawn tennis ) is played with a felt-covered hollow rubber ball on a grass, clay, or artificial surface.

They first ​met each other on the tennis ​circuit .

tent (n)

a portable shelter made of cloth, supported by one or more poles and stretched tight by cords or loops attached to pegs driven into the ground.

We ​pitched our tent in the ​shade.

term (n)

a word or phrase used to describe a thing or to express a concept, especially in a particular kind of language or branch of study.

The ​government is ​elected for a five-year term of ​office.

terrible (adj)

extremely bad or serious.

The ​weather was terrible.


test (n)

 procedure intended to establish the quality, performance, or reliability of something, especially before it is taken into widespread use.

both countries carried out nuclear tests in May.

text (n & v)

a book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.(n)

The ​spelling mistakes in the text had been ​highlighted in ​green.

send (someone) a text message.(v)

I texted her to ​arrange a ​time to ​meet.


textbook (n)

a book used as a standard work for the study of a particular subject.

I am buying new science textbook

text message (n)

an electronic communication sent and received by mobile phone.

He ​sent me a text ​message to say he would be late.

than (prep & conj)

introducing the second element in a comparison.

he was much smaller than his son.

thank (v)

express gratitude to (someone), especially by saying ‘Thank you’

Mac thanked her for the meal and left.


thanks (n)

an expression of gratitude.

festivals were held to give thanks for the harvest.


thank you (exclam)

a polite expression used when acknowledging a gift, service, or compliment, or accepting or refusing an offer.

thank you for your letter.


that (conj & pron)

introducing a subordinate clause expressing a statement or hypothesis.(conj)

She said (that) she’d ​pick it up for me after ​work.

used to identify a specific person or thing observed or heard by the speaker.(pron)

Is this the ​train that goes to Braintree?

the (det)

denoting one or more people or things already mentioned or assumed to be common knowledge.

what’s the matter?

theatre (n)

a building or outdoor area in which plays and other dramatic performances are given.

there’s a good play on at the theatre.

their (det)

belonging to or associated with the people or things previously mentioned or easily identified.

parents keen to help their children.

theirs (pron)

used to refer to a thing or things belonging to or associated with two or more people or things previously mentioned.

they think everything is theirs.

them (pron)

used as the object of a verb or preposition to refer to two or more people or things previously mentioned or easily identified.

I bathed the kids and read them stories.


themselves (pron)

used as the object of a verb or preposition to refer to a group of people or things previously mentioned as the subject of the clause.

countries unable to look after themselves.

then (adv)

at that time; at the time in question.

I was living in Cairo then.

there (adv)

in, at, or to that place or position.

we went to Paris and stayed there ten days.

these (det & pron)

plural form of this.

What are these ​toys doing here ?


they (pron)

used to refer to two or more people or things previously mentioned or easily identified.

the two men could get life sentences if they are convicted.

thin (adj)

with opposite surfaces or sides that are close or relatively close together.

There was a thin ​layer of ​oil on the ​surface of the ​water.


thing (n)

an object that one need not, cannot, or does not wish to give a specific name to.

the room was full of strange things.


think (v)

have a particular belief or idea.

she thought that nothing would be the same again.


thirsty (adj)

feeling a need to drink.

the Guides were hot and thirsty.



this (det & pron)


used to identify a specific person or thing close at hand or being indicated or experienced.(pron)

is this your bag?

used to identify a specific person or thing close at hand or being indicated or experienced.(det)

don’t listen to this guy.

those (det & pron)

plural form of that.

Can I ​help you with those ​bags?


through (prep)

moving in one side and out of the other side of (an opening, channel, or location).(prep & adv)

it takes about twenty-five minutes to get through the tunnel.


throw (v)

propel (something) with force through the air by a movement of the arm and hand.

I threw a brick through the window.


thunderstorm (n)

a storm with thunder and lightning and typically also heavy rain or hail.


ticket (n)

a piece of paper or card that gives the holder a certain right, especially to enter a place, travel by public transport, or participate in an event.

admission is by ticket only.


tidy (adj & v)

arranged neatly and in order.(adj)

The ​house was ​clean and tidy.

bring order to; arrange neatly.(v)

the boys have finally tidied their bedroom.


tidy up (n)

an act or spell of tidying something.

she’s coming to give his house its Saturday morning tidy.


tie (n & v)

attach or fasten with string or similar cord.(v)

Gabriel tied up his horse.

a piece of string, cord, or similar used for fastening or tying something.(n)

he tightened the tie of his robe.


tiger (n)

a very large solitary cat with a yellow-brown coat striped with black, native to the forests of Asia but becoming increasingly rare.

The ​video showed a man ​morphing into a tiger.

till (prep)

less formal way of saying until.

he stayed in bed till 7.

time (n)

the indefinite continued progress of existence and events in the past, present, and future regarded as a whole.

He ​wants to ​spend more time with his ​family.


timetable (n)

a chart showing the departure and arrival times of trains, buses, or aircraft.

these itineraries are subject to bus timetables.

tired (adj)

in need of sleep or rest; weary.

Fisher rubbed his tired eyes.

to (prep)

expressing motion in the direction of (a particular location).

It’s ​impossible to ​park in the ​city centre.

toast (n)

sliced bread browned on both sides by exposure to radiant heat, such as a grill or fire.

she buttered a slice of toast.


today (n & adv)

on or in the course of this present day.(adv)

the work must be finished today.

this present day.(n)

today is a rest day.


toe (n)

any of the five digits at the end of the human foot.

he cut his big toe on a sharp stone.


together (adv)

with or in proximity to another person or people.

together they climbed the dark stairs.


tomato (n)

a glossy red, or occasionally yellow, pulpy edible fruit which is eaten as a vegetable or in salad.

All the tomato ​plants are ​infected with a ​virus.


tomorrow (n & adv)

on the day after today.(adv)

the show opens tomorrow.

the day after today.(n)

tomorrow is going to be a special day.


tonight (n & adv)

on the present or approaching evening or night.(adv)

Are you doing anything tonight?

the evening or night of the present day.(n)

tonight is a night to remember.


too (adv)

to a higher degree than is desirable, permissible, or possible; excessively.

he was driving too fast.


tooth (n)

each of a set of hard, bony enamel-coated structures in the jaws of most vertebrates, used for biting and chewing.

he clenched his teeth.

toothbrush (n)

a small brush with a long handle, used for cleaning the teeth.

I have changed my toothbrush.

top (n)

the highest or uppermost point, part, or surface of something.

Doreen stood at the top of the stairs.


total (adj & n)

comprising the whole number or amount.(adj)

The total ​amount raised so ​far is ​approaching $1000.

the whole number or amount of something.(n)

he scored a total of thirty-three points.

tour (n)

a journey for pleasure in which several different places are visited.

he went on a grand tour of Europe.

tour guide (n)

a person employed to show tourists around places of interest.

our tour guide was very knowledgeable and entertaining.


tourist (n)

a person who is travelling or visiting a place for pleasure.

the pyramids have drawn tourists to Egypt.


tourist information centre (n)

A tourist information center, providing visitors to a location with information on the area’s attractions, lodgings, maps, and other items relevant to tourism. 

Every city has tourist information centre

towel (n)

a piece of thick absorbent cloth or paper used for drying oneself or wiping things dry.

He used a ​paper towel to ​mop up the ​spill.


town (n)

a built-up area with a name, defined boundaries, and local government, that is larger than a village and generally smaller than a city.

the hotel is eight miles from the nearest town.


toy (n)

an object for a child to play with, typically a model or miniature replica of something.

Put ​your toys away now – it’s ​time for ​bed.


traffic (n)

vehicles moving on a public highway.

the bridge is not open to traffic.


traffic light (n)

a set of automatically operated coloured lights, typically red, amber, and green, for controlling traffic at road junctions, pedestrian crossings, and roundabouts.

The ​police pulled him over for ​failing to ​stop at a ​red traffic light.


train (n)

a ​railway ​engine ​connected to​carriages for ​carrying ​people or to ​wheeled ​containers for ​carrying ​goods.

Did you come by train?

trainer (n)

a person who trains people or animals.

They ​showed pictures of the ​horse and ​its trainer (= the ​person who ​prepared it for ​its races).

tram (n)

a passenger vehicle powered by electricity conveyed by overhead cables, and running on rails laid in a public road.

The tram was built to carry coal from the immediately adjacent coal mine to a row of beehive coking ovens.

travel (v)

make a journey, typically of some length.

the vessel had been travelling from Libya to Ireland.

tree (n)

a woody perennial plant, typically having a single stem or trunk growing to a considerable height and bearing lateral branches at some distance from the ground.

We ​sat under a tree for ​shade.


trip (n & v)

catch one’s foot on something and stumble or fall.(v)

he tripped over his cat.

a journey or excursion, especially for pleasure.(n)

Sammy’s gone on a school trip.

trouble (n)

difficulty or problems.

I had trouble finding somewhere to park.

trousers (n pl)

an outer garment covering the body from the waist to the ankles, with a separate part for each leg.

I need a new ​pair of trousers to go with this ​jacket.

true (adj)

in accordance with fact or reality.(adj)

it may seem hard to believe, but I can assure you it’s true.

bring (an object, wheel, or other construction) into the exact shape or position required. (v)

the bench sander is ideal for truing up faces of timber.

try on (n)

an attempt to fool or deceive someone.

he has suggested they run away together, but both know it is not even a try-on.

T-shirt (n)

a short-sleeved casual top, generally made of cotton, having the shape of a T when spread out flat.

She was ​wearing jeans and a T-shirt.


turn (v)

move or cause to move in a circular direction wholly or partly around an axis or point.

the big wheel was turning.

turn off (phr v)

leave one road in order to join another.

they turned off the main road.

turn on (phr v)

suddenly attack physically or verbally.

he turned on her with cold savagery.

twice (adv)

two times; on two occasions.

the earl married twice.

type (n)

a category of people or things having common characteristics.

this type of heather grows better in a drier habitat.

tyre (n)

a rubber covering, typically inflated or surrounding an inflated inner tube, placed round a wheel to form a soft contact with the road.

He was ​driving along the ​motorway when his tyre ​burst.


umbrella (n) 

a device consisting of a circular canopy of cloth on a folding metal frame supported by a central rod, used as protection against rain.

they huddled under the umbrella.


uniform (n) 

the distinctive clothing worn by members of the same organization or body or by children attending certain schools.

He was ​pictured as a ​soldier in ​full uniform.

us (pron)

used by a speaker to refer to himself or herself and one or more other people as the object of a verb or preposition.

Thank you for ​driving us to the ​station.

uncle (n) 

the brother of one’s father or mother or the husband of one’s aunt.

he visited his uncle.

university (n) 

a high-level educational institution in which students study for degrees and academic research is done.

I went to university at the Sorbonne.


use (v)

take, hold, or deploy (something) as a means of accomplishing or achieving something; employ.

she used her key to open the front door.

under (prep) 

extending or directly below.

He ​hid under the ​bed.


until (prep)

up to (the point in time or the event mentioned). 

the kidnappers have given us until October 11th to deliver the documents.

useful (adj)

able to be used for a practical purpose or in several ways.

aspirins are useful for headaches.

underground (n & adj)

situated beneath the surface of the ground.(adj)

they drove up the ramp from the underground car park.

an underground railway, especially the one in London.(n)

he took the underground back to his studio apartment.

unusual (adj) 

not habitually or commonly occurring or done.

the government has taken the unusual step of calling home its ambassador.


usual (adj)

habitually or typically occurring or done; customary.

he carried out his usual evening routine.


understand (v) 

perceive the intended meaning of (words, a language, or a speaker).

he didn’t understand a word I said.


up (prep & adv) 

towards a higher place or position.(adv)

he jumped up.

from a lower to a higher point of (something).(prep)

she climbed up a flight of steps.

usually (adv)

under normal conditions; generally.

he usually arrives home about one o’clock.

unfortunately (adv)

it is unfortunate that.

unfortunately, we do not have the time to interview every applicant.

upset (adj) 

unhappy, disappointed, or worried.

the accusation upset her.

unhappy (n) 

sad or not ​satisfied.

I was very unhappy with the ​service.

upstairs (adv) 

on or to an upper floor of a building.

He ​heard glass breaking and ​ran upstairs to ​see what had ​caused it.



v/versus (prep)

against (especially in sporting and legal use).

England versus ​Brazil – ​bring it on!


video (n)

the recording, reproducing, or broadcasting of moving visual images.

it’s a great option for anyone looking to start using video to talk over the Net.


visitor (n)

a person visiting someone or somewhere, especially socially or as a tourist. 

she’s a frequent visitor to London.


video game (n) 

a game played by electronically manipulating images produced by a computer program on a monitor or other display.

His new ​video game is ​apparently selling like ​hot cakes.


vocabulary (n)

the body of words used in a particular language.

they are intelligent people with an extensive vocabulary.


variety (n)

the quality or state of being different or diverse; the absence of uniformity or monotony.

it’s the variety that makes my job so enjoyable.


view (n) 

the ability to see something or to be seen from a particular place.

as one walks down the lane, the parish church comes into view.


volleyball (n)

a game for two teams, usually of six players, in which a large ball is hit by hand over a high net, the aim being to score points by making the ball reach the ground on the opponent’s side of the court.

All they wanted was the chance to cheer on the Iranian volleyball team in its game against Brazil.

various (adj) 

different from one another; of different kinds or sorts.

there are various kinds of evidence for this.

village (n)

a group of houses and associated buildings, larger than a hamlet and smaller than a town, situated in a rural area. 

Our ​farm is a few ​miles north of the village.


vegetable (n)

a plant or part of a plant used as food, such as a cabbage, potato, turnip, or bean.

The ​potato is the most ​popular vegetable in this ​country.

violin (n) 

a stringed musical instrument of treble pitch, played with a horsehair bow. The classical European violin was developed in the 16th century. It has four strings and a body of characteristic rounded shape, narrowed at the middle and with two f-shaped soundholes.

She ​plays the violin with ​great expression .

very (adv)

used for emphasis:

I’m not very brave.

visit (v) 

go to see and spend time with (someone) socially.

I came to visit my grandmother.



wait (v)

stay where one is or delay action until a particular time or event.

he did not wait for a reply.

waiter (n)

a man whose job is to serve customers at their tables in a restaurant.

the waiter came to take their order.

waitress (n)

a woman whose job is to serve customers at their tables in a restaurant.

She ​works as a waitress.

wake (v)

emerge or cause to emerge from sleep; stop sleeping.

she woke up feeling better.

wake up (n)

an instance of a person waking up or being woken up.

the wake-up comes in the dark before dawn.

walk (v)

move at a regular pace by lifting and setting down each foot in turn, never having both feet off the ground at once.

I walked across the lawn.

walking (n)

 the ​activity of going for a ​walk, ​especially for ​pleasure.

Do you think walking is important?

wall (n)

a continuous vertical brick or stone structure that encloses or divides an area of land.

We had to ​climb over a ten-foot wall to get into the ​garden.

wallet (n)

a pocket-sized flat folding case for holding money and plastic cards.

he pulled out a wallet and took a photograph from it.

want (v)

have a desire to possess or do (something); wish for.

do you want more coffee?

warm (adj)

of or at a fairly or comfortably high temperature.

Patsy was in the big, warm kitchen.

wash (v)

clean with water and, typically, soap or detergent.

Auntie  had washed all their clothes.

washing machine (n)

a machine for washing clothes, bed linen, etc.

I put a ​load into the ​washing machine.


washing-up (n)

the process of washing used crockery, cutlery, and other kitchen utensils.

they’ve finished the washing-up.

wash up (phr v)

clean crockery and cutlery after use.

I cook for him, but he must wash up.

watch (n & v)

look at or observe attentively over a period of time.(v)

Lucy watched him go.

a small timepiece worn typically on a strap on one’s wrist.(n)

my watch had stopped.

water (n)

 a colourless, transparent, odourless, liquid which forms the seas, lakes, rivers, and rain and is the basis of the fluids of living organisms.

sodium chloride dissolves in water.

way (n)

a method, style, or manner of doing something; an optional or alternative form of action.

I hated their way of cooking potatoes.


we (pron)

used by a speaker to refer to himself or herself and one or more other people considered together.

shall we have a drink?

wear (v)

have (something) on one’s body as clothing, decoration, or protection.

he was wearing a dark suit.

weather (n)

the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.

if the weather’s good we can go for a walk.

web (n)

a network of fine threads constructed by a spider from fluid secreted by its spinnerets, used to catch its prey.

web page (n)

a hypertext document connected to the World Wide Web.

A ​website may have many different ​web pages for you to ​click on and ​explore.

website (n)

a location connected to the Internet that maintains one or more web pages.

This website is ​currently under ​construction.


week (n)

a period of seven days.

the course lasts sixteen weeks.

weekday (n)

a day of the week other than Sunday or Saturday.

On weekdays I’m usually in ​bed by ten o’clock.

weekend (n)

Saturday and Sunday, especially regarded as a time for leisure.

she spent the weekend camping.

weekly (adj & adv)

done, produced, or occurring once a week.(adj)

there was a weekly dance on Wednesdays.

once a week.(adv)

interviews were given weekly.

used to greet someone in a polite or friendly way.(exclam)

said as a ​greeting to someone ​arriving at a ​place

Welcome to the Wildlife Park.

Welcome home/back – we’ve missed you!

well (adv & adj)

in a good way, to a high or ​satisfactory ​standard (adv)

The whole team played well.

The concert was advertised well enough but ticket ​sales were ​poor.

in good health; free or recovered from illness.(adj)

I don’t feel very well.

When she came ​home from ​school she really didn’t ​look well.

whole (adj & n)

all of; entire.(adj)

he spent the whole day walking.

a thing that is complete in itself.(n)

the two movements had been fused into a single whole.

worried (adj)

anxious or troubled about actual or potential problems.

Maria knew that her friends were very worried about her.

wide (adj) 

of great or more than average width.

His ​eyes were wide (= ​opened much more than ​usual) with​ surprise.

worry (v)

feel or cause to feel anxious or troubled about actual or potential problems.

he worried about his soldier sons in the war.

wild (adj) 

(of an animal or plant) living or growing in the natural environment; not domesticated or cultivated.

These ​herbs grow wild in the ​area.

worst (adj)

of the poorest quality or the lowest standard; least good or desirable.

he was the company’s worst driver.

you will regret it when you are older.

wonderful (adj) 

inspiring delight, pleasure, or admiration; extremely good; marvellous.

they all think she’s wonderful.

win (v)

be successful or victorious in (a contest or conflict).

United won four games in a row.


wind (n)

the perceptible natural movement of the air, especially in the form of a current of air blowing from a particular direction.

The slender pine trees were swaying in the wind.


windy (adj)

characterized by or exposed to strong winds.

It was a windy ​night.

yet (adv) 

up until the present or a specified or implied time; by now or then

I haven’t told anyone else yet.

He hasn’t ​finished yet.

year (n) 

the time taken by the earth to make one revolution around the sun

We went to Egypt on ​holiday last year.

young (adj)

having lived or existed for only a short time and not ​old.

The ​trees in this ​part of the ​forest are still ​fairly young.

used to denote the younger of two people of the same name.

Anita is two years younger than Sonia.

zoo (n)

an establishment which maintains a collection of wild animals, typically in a park or gardens, for study, conservation, or display to the public

We are going to zoo this Sunday.